The Role of Mast Cells in Inflammation and Homeostasis

  • Angus J. MacDonald
  • Fiona L. Wills
  • Tong-Jun Lin
  • A. Dean Befus


The mast cell (MC) is a major effector of inflammation. Therefore, understanding its regulation and interplay with other cells is imperative to the management of inflammatory disease. MC populations are heterogeneous with distinct phenotypes tailored by the microenvironment to required functions: they are influenced by mediators produced by T- and B-lymphocytes, stromal, and inflammatory cells, and in turn can modulate the environment through production of cytokines and other molecules. This heterogeneity is best exemplified in the rat, where two highly divergent phenotypes, the connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) and the mucosal mast cell (MMC), have been well characterized and demonstrate many functional and morphological differences. The location of MC adjacent to blood vessels, smooth muscle, mucosal surfaces, and nerve endings (1,2) puts them in an ideal setting to effect regulatory functions by releasing their mediators (e.g., biogenic amines, arachidonic acid metabolites, proteoglycans, proteinases, cytokines, etc.) in controlled amounts. These same mediators, however, released in large amounts under conditions of inflammation, can deleteriously affect other cells and tissues. To elucidate the function of the MC, its contributions to acute and chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, fibrosis, host defenses to parasitic infection, tissue remodelling, and allergic diseases, including asthma, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and urticaria, in addition to the complexity of its roles in homeostasis and immunoregulation must be addressed (2–4).Most recently the MC has also been implicated in defense against bacterial pathogens, through release of prestored mediators, resulting in the recruitment of other leukocytes to the site of infection (5,6) This review addresses what is known about the functions of various MC subtypes in the underlying process of inflammation common to these pathophysiologic conditions.


Mast Cell Nerve Growth Factor Stem Cell Factor Human Mast Cell Mucosal Mast Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Galli SJ (1990) New insights into “the riddle of the mast cells”: microenvironmental regulation of mast cell development and phenotypic heterogeneity. Lab Invest 62: 5–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Befus AD (1994) Inflammation: mast cells. In: Ogra PL, Mestecky J, Lamm M, Strober W, McGhee J, Bienenstock J, eds. Handbook of Mucosal Immunology. Academic, San Diego, pp. 307–314.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holgate ST (1991) The mast cell and its function in allergic disease. Clin Exp Allergy 21 (suppl 3): 1–16.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schwartz L, Huff T (1993) Biology of mast cells and basophils. In: Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF Jr, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy Principles and Practice, 4th ed. Mosby, St. Louis, pp. 135–168.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Echtenacher B, Männel DN, Hültner L. (1996) Critical protective role of mast cells in a model of acute septic peritonitis. Nature 381: 75–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Malaviya R, Ikeda T, Ross E, Abraham SN (1996) Mast cell modulation of neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance at sites of infection through TNF-a. Nature 381: 77–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kitamura Y, Shimada M, Hatanaka K, Miyano Y (1977) Development of mast cells from grafted bone marrow cells in irradiated mice. Nature 268: 442–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rodewald H-R, Dessing M, Dvorak AM, Galli SJ (1996) Identification of a committed precursor for the mast cell lineage. Science 271: 818–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huff TF, Lantz CS, Ryan JJ, Leftwich, JA (1995) Mast cell committed progenitors. In: Kitamura Y, Yamamota S, Galli SJ, Greaves MW, eds. Biological and Molecular Aspects of Mast Cell and Basophil Differentiation and Function. Raven, New York, pp. 105–117.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rottem M, Metcalfe DD (1995) Development and maturation of mast cells and basophils. In: Busse WW, Holgate ST, eds. Asthma and Rhinitis. Blackwell, Boston, pp. 167–181.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lantz CS, Huff TF (1995) Differential responsiveness of purified mouse c-kit+ mast cells and their progenitors to IL-3 and stem cell factor. J Immunol 155: 4024–4029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsai M, Takeishi T, Thompson H, Langley KE, Zsebo KM, Metcalfe DD, Geissler EN, Galli SJ (1991) Induction of mast cell proliferation, maturation and heparin synthesis by the rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 6382–6386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rennick D, Hunte B, Holland G, Thompson-Snipes L (1995) Cofactors are essential for stem cell factor-dependent growth and maturation of mast cell progenitors: comparative effects of interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-10, and fibroblasts. Blood 85: 57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsuji, K, Nakahata T, Takagi M, Kobayashi T, Ishiguro A, Kikuchi K, Naganuma K, Koike K, Miyajima A, Arai K, Akabane T (1990) Effects of interleukin-3 and interleukin-4 on the development of connective tissue-type mast cells: interleukin-3 supports their survival and interleukin-4 triggers and supports their proliferation synergistically with interleukin-3 Blood 75: 421–427.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Haig DM, Huntley JF, Mackellar A, Newlands GFJ, Inglis L, Sangha R, Cohen D, Hapel A, Galli SJ, Miller HRP (1994) Effects of stem cell factor (kit-ligand) and interleukin-3 on the growth and serine proteinase expression of rat bone marrow-derived or serosal mast cells. Blood 83: 72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Galli SJ, Zsebo M, Geissler EN (1994) The kit ligand, stem cell factor. Adv Immunol 55: 1–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kitamura Y, Kasugai T, Nomura S, Matsuda H (1993) Development of mast cells and basophils. In: Foreman JC, ed. Immunopharmacology of Mast Cells and Basophils. Academic, London, pp. 5–27.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hamaguchi Y, Kanakura Y, Fujita J, Takeda S, Nakano T, Tarui S, Horijo T, Kitamura Y (1987) Interleukin 4 as an essential factor for in vitro clonal growth of murine connective tissue-type mast cells. J Exp Med 165: 268–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Takagi M, Nakahata T, Koike K, Kobayashi T, Tsuji K, Kojima S, Hirano T, Miyajima A, Arai K, Akabane T (1989) Stimulation of connective tissue-type mast cell proliferation by crosslinking of cell-bound IgE. J Exp Med 170: 233–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Renauld J-C, Kermouni A, Vink A, Louahed J, Van Snick J (1995) Interleukin-9 and its receptor: involvement in mast cell differentiation and T cell oncogenesis. J Leukoc Biol 57: 353–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Valent P, Besemer J, Sillaber C, Butterfield JH, Eher R, Majdic O, Kishi K, Klepetko W, Eckersberger R, Lechner K, Bettelheim P (1990) Failure to detect IL-3-binding sites on human mast cells. J Immunol 145: 3432–3437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Agis H, Valent P (1995) Molecules involved in the development of human basophils and mast cells. In: Kitamura Y, Yamamoto S, Galli SJ, Greaves MW, eds. Biological and Molecular Aspects of Mast Cell and Basophil Differentiation and Function Raven, New York, pp. 119–130.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nilsson G, Miettinen U, Ishizaka T, Ashman LK, Irani A-M, Schwartz LB (1994) Interleukin-4 inhibits the expression of kit and tryptase during stem cell factor-dependent development of human mast cells from fetal liver cells. Blood 84: 1519–1527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Horigome K, Bullock ED, Johnson EM Jr (1994) Effects of nerve growth factor on rat peritoneal mast cells. Survival promotion and immediate-early gene induction. J Biol Chem 269: 2695–2702.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matsuda H, Yukiko K, Hiroko U, Kiso Y, Kanemoto T, Suzuki H, Kitamura Y (1991) Nerve growth factor induces development of connective tissue-type mast cells in vitro from murine bone marrow cells. J Exp Med 174: 7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Broide DH, SI Wasserman, J Alvaro-Garcia, NJ Zvaifler, GS Firestein (1989) Transforming growth factor-131 selectively inhibits IL-3 dependent mast cell proliferation without affecting mast cell function or differentiation. J Immunol 143: 1591–1597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bissonnette EY, Enciso JA, Befus AD (1997) TGF(31 inhibits histamine and TNFa release by rat peritoneal mast cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 16: 275–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nafziger J, Arock M, Guillosson J-J, Wietzerbin J (1990) Specific high-affinity receptors for interferon-y on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells: inhibitory effect of interferon-y on mast cell precursors. Eur J Immunol 20: 113–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hu Z-Q, Zenda N, Shimamura T (1996) Down-regulation by IL-4 and up-regulation by IFN-y of mast cell induction from mouse spleen cells. J Immunol 156: 3925–3931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ra C, Yasuda M, Kim Z, Saito H, Nakahata T, Yagita H, Okumura K (1995) Fibronectin receptor (FNR) integrins on mast cells are involved in cellular activation. In: Kitamura Y, Yamamoto S, Galli SJ, Greaves MW, eds. Biological and Molecular Aspects of Mast Cell and Basophil Differentiation and Function. Raven, New York, pp. 239–247.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hamawy MM, Mergenhagen SE, Siraganian RP (1994) Adhesion molecules as regulators of mast-cell and basophil function. Immunol. Today 15: 62–66.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bianchine PJ, Metcalfe DD (1995) Adhesion molecules and their relevance in understanding the biology of the mast cell. In: Y Kitamura, S Yamamoto, SJ Galli, MW Greaves, eds. Biological and Molecular Aspects of Mast Cell and Basophil Differentiation and Function. Raven, New York, pp. 139–147.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cohen JJ (1993) Apoptosis. Immunol Today 14: 126–130.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mekori YA, Oh CK, Metcalfe DD (1993) IL-3-dependent murine mast cells undergo apoptosis on removal of IL-3: prevention of apoptosis by c-kit ligand. J Immunol 151: 3775–3784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Iemura A, Tsai M, Ando A, Wershil BK, Galli SJ (1994) The c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, promotes mast cell survival by suppressing apoptosis. Am J Pathol 144: 321–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mekori YA, Metcalfe DD (1994) Transforming growth factor-(3 prevents stem cell factor-mediated rescue of mast cells from apoptosis after IL-3 deprivation. J Immunol 153: 2194–2203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    King SJ, Miller HRP, Newlands GFJ, Woodbury RG (1985) Depletion of mucosal mast cell protease by corticosteroid: effect on intestinal anaphylaxis in the rat. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 82: 1214–1218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Soda K, Kawabori S, Perdue MH, Bienenstock J (1991) Macrophage engulfment of mucosal mast cells in rats treated with dexamethasone. Gastroenterology 100: 929–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schleimer RP, Schulman ES, MacGlashan DW Jr, Peters SP, Hayes EC, Adams K III, Lichtenstein LM, Adkinson NF Jr. (1983) Effects of dexamethasone on mediator release from human lung fragments and purified human lung mast cells. J Clin Invest 71: 1830–1835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berenstein EH, Garcia-Gil M, Siraganian RP (1987) Dexamethasone inhibits receptor-activated phosphoinositide breakdown in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. J Immunol 138: 1914–1918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Newlands GFJ, MacKellar A, Miller HRP (1990) Intestinal mucosal mast cells in Nippostrongylusinfected mice: lack of sensitivity to corticosteroids. Int J Parasitol 20: 669–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gibson S, Miller HRP (1986) Mast cell subsets in the rat distinguished immunohistochemically by their content of serine proteinases. Immunology 58: 101–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Befus AD (1989) Mast cells are that polymorphic! Regional Immunol 2: 176–187.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bissonnette EY, Befus AD (1993) Modulation of mast cell function in the gastrointestinal tract. In: Wallace JL, ed. Immunopharmacology of the Gastrointestinal System. Academic, London, pp. 95–103.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Newlands GFJ, Lammas DA, Huntléy JF, Mackellar A, Wakelin D, Miller HRP (1991) Heterogeneity of murine bone marrow-derived mast cells: analysis of their proteinase content. Immunology 72: 434–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Levi-Schaffer F, Rubinchik E (1994) Mast cell/fibroblast interactions. Clin Exp Allergy 24: 1016–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gurish MF, Ghildyal N, McNeil HP, Austen KF, Gillis S, Stevens RL (1992) Differential expression of secretory granule proteases in mouse mast cells exposed to interleukin 3 and c-kit ligand. J Exp Med 175: 1003–1012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kanakura Y, Thompson H, Nakano T, Yamamura T, Asai H, Kitamura Y, Metcalfe DD, Galli SJ (1988) Multiple bidirectional alterations of phenotype and changes in proliferative potential during in vitro and in vivo passage of clonal mast cell populations derived from mouse peritoneal mast cells. Blood 72: 877–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    MacDonald AJ, Thornton EM, Newlands GFJ, Galli SJ, Moqbel R, Miller HRP (1996) Rat bone marrow-derived mast cells co-cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts in the absence of T cell-derived cytokines require stem cell factor for their survival and maintain their mucosal mast cell-like phenotype. Immunology 88: 375–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    McMenamin CC, Gault EA, Haig DM (1987) The effect of dexamethasone on growth and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mucosal mast cells in vitro. Immunology 62: 29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Benyon RC, Lowman MA, Rees PH, Holgate ST, Church MK (1989) Mast cell heterogeneity. In: Morley J, ed. Asthma Reviews Vol. 2. Academic, London, pp. 151–189.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Beaven MA, Metzger H (1993) Signal transduction by Fc receptors: the FceRI case. Immunol. Today 14, 222–226.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pearce FL, Befus AD, Gauldie J, Bienenstock J (1982) Mucosal mast cells. II. effects of anti-allergic compounds on histamine secretion by isolated intestinal mast cells. J Immunol 128: 2481–2486.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Horigome K, Pryor JC, Bullock ED, Johnson EM JR (1993) Mediator release from mast cells by nerve growth factor. Neurotrophin specificity and receptor mediation. J Biol Chem 268: 14881–14887.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shanahan F, Denburg JA, Fox JET, Bienenstock J, Befus AD (1985) Mast cell heterogeneity: effects of neuroenteric peptides on histamine release. J Immunol 135: 1331–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Befus AD, Dyck N, Goodacre R, Bienenstock J (1987) Mast cells from the human intestinal lamina propria. Isolation, histochemical subtypes, and functional characterization. J Immunol 138: 2604–2610.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Holgate ST, Robinson C, Church MK (1993) Mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. In: Middleton E Jr, Reed CE, Ellis EF, Adkinson NF, Yunginger JW, Busse WW, eds. Allergy, Principles and Practice. Mosby, St. Louis, pp. 267–301.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Befus AD, Pearce FL, Gauldie J, Horsewood P, Bienenstock J (1982) Mucosal mast cells. I. Isolation and functional characteristics of rat intestinal mast cells. J Immunol 128: 2475–2480.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schulman ES, Kagey-Sobotka A, MacGlashan DW, Adkinson NF, Peters SP, Schleimer RP, Lichtenstein LM (1983) Heterogeneity of human mast cells. J Immunol 131: 1936–1941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kapeller-Adler R (1965) Histamine catabolism in vitro and in vivo. Fed Proc 24: 757–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moran NC, Uvnas B, Westesholm B (1962) Release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine from rat mast cells. Acta Physiol Scand 56: 26–41.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wingren U, Enerback L, Ahlman H, Allenmark S, Dahlstrom A (1983) Amines of the mucosal mast cell of the gut in normal and nematode infected rats. Histochemistry 77: 145–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schwartz LB, Riedel C, Caulfield JP, Wasserman SI, Austen KF (1981) Cell association of complexes of chymase, heparin proteoglycan, and protein after degranulation by rat mast cells. J Immunol 126: 2071–2078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Befus AD, Chin B, Pick J, Evans S, Osborn S, Forstrom J (1995) Proteinases of rat mast cells: peritoneal but not intestinal mucosal mast cells express mast cell proteinase 5 and carboxypeptidase A. J Immunol 155: 4406 1111.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schwartz LB, Riedel C, Schratz JJ, Austen KF (1982) Localization of carboxypeptidase A to the macromolecular heparin proteoglycan-protein complex in secretory granules of rat serosal mast cells. J Immunol 128: 1128–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Haig DM, McKee TA, Jarrett EE, Woodbury R, Miller HRP (1982) Generation of mucosal mast cells in stimulated in vitro by factors derived from T cells of helminth-infected rats. Nature 300: 188–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lee TDG, Shanahan F, Miller HRP, Bienenstock J, Befus AD (1985) Intestinal mucosal mast cells: isolation from rat lamina propria and purification using unit gravity velocity sedimentation. Immunology 55: 721–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Matsumoto R, Sali A, Ghildyal N, Karplus M, Stevens R (1995) Packaging of proteases and proteoglycans in the granules of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells, a cluster of histidines on mouse mast cell protease 7 regulates its binding to heparin serglycin proteoglycans. J Biol Chem 270:19, 524–19, 531.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schwartz LB, Irani AA, Roller K, Castells MC, Schechter NM (1987) Quantitation of histamine, tryptase and chymase in dispersed human T and TC mast cells. J Immunol 138: 2611–2615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Clark JM, Abraham WM, Fishman CF, Forteza R, Ahmed A, Cortes A, Warne RL, Moore WR, Tanaka RD (1995) Tryptase inhibitors block allergen-induced airway and inflammatory responses in allergic sheep. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152: 2076–2083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Molinari JF, Moore WR, Clark J, Tanaka R, Butterfield JH, Abraham WM (1995) Role of tryptase in immediate cutaneous responses in allergic sheep. J Appl Physiol 79: 1966–1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Craig SS, Irani A-MA, Metcalfe DD, Schwartz LB (1993) Ultrastructural localization of heparin to human mast cells of the MCTC and MCT types by labeling with antithrombin III-gold. Lab Invest 69: 552–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stevens, RL., Lee, T.D.G., Seldin, D.C., Austen, K.F., Befus, A.D., and Bienenstock, J. (1986) Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans. J. Immunol 137: 291–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kusche M, Lindahl U, Enerback L, Roden L (1988) Identification of oversulphated galactosaminoglycans in intestinal-mucosal mast cells of rats infected with the nematode worm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Biochem J 253: 885–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Henderson WR, Kaliner M (1978) Immunologic and non-immunologic generation of superoxide from mast cells and basophils. J Clin Invest 61: 187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Henderson WR, Kaliner M (1979) Mast cell granule peroxidase: location, secretion and SRS-A inactivation. J Immunol 122: 1322–1328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Berger RJ, Zuccarello M, Keller JT (1994) Nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the rat dura mater. Neuroreport 5: 519–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bacci S, Arbi-Ricardi R, Mayer B, Rumio C, Borghi-Cirri MB (1994) Localization of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in mast cells of human nasal mucosa. Histochemistry 102: 89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bandaletova T, Brouet I, Bartsch H, Sugimura T, Esumi H, Ohshima H (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of an inducible form of nitric oxide synthase in various organs of rats treated with Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 101: 330–336.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hogaboam CM, Befus AD, Wallace JL (1993) Modulation of rat mast cell reactivity by IL-113, divergent effects on nitric oxide and platelet-activating factor release. J Immunol 151: 3767–3774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ambrosio G, Oriente A, Napoli C, Palumbo G, Chiariello P, Marone G, Condorelli M, Chiariello M, Triggiani M (1994) Oxygen radicals inhibit human plasma acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catabolizes platelet-activating factor. J Clin Invest 93: 2408–2416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bissonnette EY, Hogaboam CM, Wallace JL, Befus AD (1991) Potentiation of tumor necrosis factora-mediated cytotoxicity of mast cells by their production of nitric oxide. J Immunol 147: 3060–3065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Salvemini D, Masini E, Pistelli A, Mannaioni PF, Vane JR (1991) Nitric oxide: a regulatory mediator of mast cell reactivity. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17: S258 - S264.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mannaioni PF, Masini E (1988) The release of histamine by free radicals. Free Radic Biol Med 5: 177–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lin T-J, Enciso JA, Bissonnette EY, Szczepek A, Befus AD (1996) Cytokine and drug modulation of TNFot in mast cells, in Proceedings International Symposium on Molecular Biology of Allergens and the Atopic Immune Response ( Sehon A, HayGlass KT, Kraft D, eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 279–285.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lin T-J, Befus AD (1997) Differential regulation of mast cell function by IL-10 and stem cell factor. J Immunol 159: 4015–4023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Selvan RS, Butterfield JH, Krangel MS (1994) Expression of multiple chemokine genes by human mast cell leukemia. J Biol Chem 269:13, 893–13, 898.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bradding P, Okayama Y, Howarth PH, Church MK, Holgate ST (1995) Heterogeneity of human mast cells based on cytokine content. J Immunol 155: 297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zhang Y, Ramos BF, Jakschik BA (1992) Neutrophil recruitment by tumor necrosis factor from mast cells in immune complex peritonitis. Science 258: 1957–1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gordon JR, Galli SJ (1994) Promotion of mouse fibroblast collagen gene expression by mast cells stimulated via the FceRI. Role for mast cell-derived transforming growth factor 13 and tumor necrosis factor a. J Exp Med 180: 2027–2037.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bissonnette EY, Chin B, Befus AD (1995) Interferons differentially regulate histamine and TNF-a in rat intestinal mucosal mast cells. Immunology 86: 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hill PB, MacDonald AJ, Thornton EM, Newlands GFJ, Galli SJ, Miller HRP (1996) Stem cell factor enhances immunoglobulin E-dependent mediator release from cultured rat bone marrow-derived mast cells: activation of previously unresponsive cells demonstrated by a novel ELISPOT assay. Immunology 87: 326–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lin T-J, Bissonnette EY, Hirsh A, Befus AD (1996) Stem cell factor potentiates histamine secretion by multiple mechanisms, but does not affect TNFa release from rat mast cells. Immunology 89: 301–307.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Murakami M, Austen KF, Arm JP (1995) The immediate phase of c-kit ligand stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells elicits rapid leukotriene C4 generation through posttranslational activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase. J Exp Med 182: 197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nilsson G, Butterfield JH, Nilsson K, Siegbahn A (1994) Stem cell factor is a chemotactic factor for human mast cells. J Immunol 153: 3717–3723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Johnston HB, Atterwill CK (1992) Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on mast cells: effects of the cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion ( ECMA ). Neurotoxicology 13: 155–159.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Gruber BL, Marchese MJ, Kew RR (1994) Transforming growth factor- 31 mediates mast cell chemotaxis. J Immunol 152: 5860–5867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Meade R, Askenase PW, Geba GP, Neddermann K, Jacoby RO, Pasternak RD (1992) Transforming growth factor-ß1 inhibits murine immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity. J Immunol 149: 521–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Thompson HL, Burbelo PD, Metcalfe DD (1990) Regulation of adhesion of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells to laminin. J Immunol 145: 3425–3431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Frandji P, Tkaczyk C, Oskeritzian C, Lapeyre J, Peronet R, David B, Guillet JG, Mecheri S (1995) Presentation of soluble antigens by mast cells: upregulation by interleukin-4 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and downregulation by interferon y. Cell Immunol 163: 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gold MR, Duronio V, Saxena SP, Schrader JW, Aebersold R (1994) Multiple cytokines activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in hemopoietic cells. Association of the enzyme with various tyrosinephosphorylated proteins. J Biol Chem 269: 5403–5412.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Holliday MR, Banks EM, Dearman RI, Kimber I, Coleman JW (1994) Interaction of IFNy with IL-3 and IL-4 in the regulation of serotonin and arachidonate release from mouse peritoneal mast cells. Immunology 82: 70–74.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Coleman JW, Buckley MG, Holliday MR, Morris AG (1991) Interferon-y inhibits serotonin release from mouse peritoneal mast cells. Eur J Immunol 21: 2559–2564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Enciso JA, Bissonnette EY, Befus AD (1996) Regulation of mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and the alpha chain of the high-affinity receptor for IgE in mast cells by IFN-gamma and alpha/beta. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 110: 114–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Swieter M, Ghali WA, Rimmer C, Befus AD (1989) Interferon-a/(3 inhibits IgE-dependent histamine release from rat mast cells. Immunology 66: 606–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mattoli S, Ackerman V, Vittori E, Marini M (1995) Mast cell chemotactic activity of RANTES. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 209: 316–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Taub D, Dastych J, Inamura N, Upton J, Kelvin D, Metcalfe D, Oppenheim J (1995) Bone marrow-derived murine mast cells migrate, but do not degranulate, in response to chemokines J Immunol 154: 2393–2402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Alam R, Kumar D, Anderson-Walters D, Forsythe PA (1994) Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 a and monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 elicit immediate and late cutaneous reactions and activate murine mast cells in vivo. J Immunol 152: 1298–1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Yamamura H, Nabe T, Kohno S, Ohata K (1994) Endothelin-1, one of the most potent histamine releasers in mouse peritoneal mast cells. Eur J Pharmacol 265: 9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yamamura H, Nabe T, Kohno S, Ohata K (1995) Mechanism of histamine release by endothelin-1 distinct from that by antigen in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Eur J Phanmacol 288: 269–275.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yamamura H, Nabe T, Kohno S, Ohata K (1995) Endothelin-1 induces release of histamine and leukotriene C4 from mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Eur J Pharmacol 257: 235–242.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Uchida Y, Ninomiya H, Sakamoto T, Lee JY, Endo T, Nomura A, Hasegawa S, Hirata F (1992) ET-1 released histamine from guinea pig pulmonary but not peritoneal mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 189: 1196–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gruber BL, Marchese MJ, Kew R (1995) Angiogenic factors stimulate mast cell migration. Blood 86: 2488–2493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Masini E, Bani D, Bigazzi M, Mannaioni PF, Bani-Sacchi T (1994) Effects of relaxin on mast cells. In vitro and in vivo studies in rats and guinea pigs. J Clin Invest 94: 1974–1980.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Subramanian N, Bray MA (1987) Interleukin 1 releases histamine from human basophils and mast cells in vitro. J Immunol 138: 271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Salari H, Chan-Yeung M (1989) Interleukin-1 potentiates antigen-mediated arachidonic acid metabolite formation in mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy 19: 637–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tasaka K, Hamada M, Mio M (1994) Inhibitory effect of interleukin-2 on histamine release from rat mast cells. Agents Actions 41: C26 - C27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Takaishi T, Morita Y, Hirai K, Yamaguchi M, Yokota T, Arai K, Ito K, Miyamoto T (1992) Mouse IL-3 induces histamine release from mouse peritoneal mast cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 98: 205–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Matsuura N, Zetter BR (1989) Stimulation of mast cell chemotaxis by interleukin 3. J Exp Med 170: 1421–1426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Murakami M, Austen KF, Bingham CO III, Friend DS, Penrose JF, Arm JP (1995) Interleukin-3 regulates development of the 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene C4 synthase pathway in mouse mast cells. J Biol Chem 270:22, 653–22, 656.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ghildyal N, McNeil HP, Gurish MF, Austen KF, Stevens RL (1992) Transcriptional regulation of the mucosal mast cell-specific protease gene, MMCP-2, by interleukin 10 and interleukin 3 J Biol Chem 267: 8473–8477.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dvorak AM, Tepper RI, Weller PF, Morgan ES, Estrella P, Monahan-Earley RA, Galli SJ (1994) Piecemeal degranulation of mast cells in the inflammatory eyelid lesions of interleukin-4 transgenic mice. Evidence of mast cell histamine release in vivo by diamine oxidase-gold enzyme-affinity ultra-structural cytochemistry. Blood 83: 3600–3612.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Egger D, Geuenich S, Denzlinger C, Schmitt E, Mailhammer R, Ehrenreich H, Dormer P, Hultner L (1995) IL-4 renders mast cells functionally responsive to endothelia-1. J Immunol 154: 1830–1837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Buckley MG, Williams CM, Thompson J, Pryor P, Ray K, Butterfield JH, Coleman JW (1995) IL-4 enhances IL-3 and IL-8 gene expression in a human leukemic mast cell line Immunology 84: 410–415.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Coleman JW, Buckley MG, Taylor AM, Banks EM, Williams CM, Holliday MR, Thompson J (1995) Effects of interleukin-4 or stem cell factor on mast cell mediator release and cytokine gene expression. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 107: 154–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sillaber C, Strobl H, Bevec D, Ashman LK, Butterfield JH, Lechner K, Maurer D, Bettelheim P, Valent P (1991) IL-4 regulates c-kit proto-oncogene product expression in human mast and myeloid progenitor cells. J Immunol 147: 4224–4228.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Eklund KK, Ghildyal N, Austen KF, Stevens RL (1993) Induction by IL-9 and suppression by IL-3 and IL-4 of the levels of chromosome 14-derived transcripts that encode late-expressed mouse mast cell pro-teases. J Immunol 151: 4266–4273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Welham MJ, Duronio V, Sanghera JS, Pelech SL, Schrader JW (1992) Multiple hemopoietic growth factors stimulate activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase family members. J Immunol 149: 1683–1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Louahed J, Kermouni A, Van Snick J, Renauld JC (1995) IL-9 induces expression of granzymes and high-affinity IgE receptor in murine T helper clones. J Immunol 154: 5061–5070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hultner L, Moeller J (1990) Mast cell growth-enhancing activity (MEA) stimulates interleukin 6 production in a mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell line and a malignant subline. Exp Hematol 18: 873–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ghildyal N, McNeil HP, Stechschulte S, Austen KF, Silberstein D, Gurish MF, Somerville LL, Stevens RL (1992) IL-10 induces transcription of the gene for mouse mast cell protease-1, a serine protease preferentially expressed in mucosal mast cells of Trichinella spiralis-infected mice. J Immunol 149: 2123–2129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ghildyal N, Friend DS, Nicodemus CF, Austen KF, Stevens RL (1993) Reversible expression of mouse mast cell protease 2 mRNA and protein in cultured mast cells exposed to IL-10. J Immunol 151: 3206–3214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Murakami M, Austen KF, Arm JP (1995) The immediate phase of c-kit ligand stimulation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells elicits rapid leukotriene C4 generation through posttranslational activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-lipoxygenase. J Exp Med 182: 197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Arock M, Zuany-Amorim C, Singer M, Benhamou M, Pretolani M (1996) Interleukin-10 inhibits cytokine generation from mast cells. Eur J Immunol 26: 166–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Marshall JS, Leal-Berumen I, Nielsen L, Glibetic M, Jordana M (1996) Interleukin (IL)-10 inhibits longterm IL-6 production but not preformed mediator release from rat peritoneal mast cells. J Clin Invest 97: 1122–1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bissonnette EY, Enciso JA, Befus AD (1996) Inhibitory effects of sulfasalazine and its metabolites on histamine release and TNFa production by mast cells. J Immunol 156: 218–223.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wershil BK, Furuta GT, Lavigne JA, Choudhury AR, Wang ZS, Galli SJ (1995) Dexamethasone or cyclosporin A suppress mast cell-leukocyte cytokine cascades, multiple mechanisms of inhibition of IgE- and mast cell-dependent cutaneous inflammation in the mouse. J Immunol 154: 1391–1398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Williams CMM, Coleman JW (1995) Induced expression of mRNA for IL-5, IL-6, TNFa, MIP-2 and IFNy in immunologically activated rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by dexamethasone and cyclosporin A. Immunology 86: 244–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Emadi-Khiav B, Mousli M, Bronner C, Landry Y (1995) Human and rat cutaneous mast cells: involvement of a G-protein in the response to peptidergic stimuli. Eur J Pharmacol 272: 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bissonnette EY, Mathison R, Carter L, Davison JS, Befus AD (1993) Decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia inhibits mast cell mediated TNFa-dependent cytotoxicity. 1. Potential role of salivary glands. Brain Behav Immun 7: 293–300.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    White SR, Stimler-Gerard NP, Munoz NM, Popovich KJ, Murphy TM, Blake JS, Mack MM, Leff AR (1989) Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade and sympathetic stimulation on canine bronchial mast cell response to immune degranulation in vivo. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 73–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Levi-Schaffer F, Rubinchik E (1995) Mast cell role in fibrotic diseases. Israel J Med Sci 31: 450–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Meininger C (1995) Mast cells and tumor-associated angiogenesis, in Human Basophils and Mast Cells: Clinical Aspects. (Marone, G., ed.). Chem Immunol, Vol. 62. Karger, Basel, pp. 239–257.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kovanen PT (1995) Role of mast cells in atherosclerosis, in Human Basophils and Mast Cells: Clinical Aspects. (Marone, G., ed.). Chem Immunol, Vol. 62. Karger, Basel, pp. 132–170.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Marshall JS, Waserman S (1995) Mast cells and the nerves-potential interactions in the context of chronic disease. Clin Exp Allergy 25: 102–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Amason JA, Malone DG (1995) Role of mast cells in arthritis, in Human Basophils and Mast Cells: Clincal Aspects. (Marone, G., ed.). Chem Immunol, Vol. 62. Karger, Basel, pp. 204–238.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Leal-Berumen I, Conlon P, Marshall JS (1994) Interleukin-6 production by rat peritoneal mast cells is not necessarily preceded by histamine release and can be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 152: 5468–5476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Galli SJ, Tsai M, Gordon JR, Geissler EN, Wershil BK (1992) Analyzing mast cell development and function using mice carrying mutations at W/c-kit or Sl/MGF ( SCF) loci. Ann NY Acad Sci 664: 69–88.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Roche WR, Beasley R, Williams JH, Holgate ST (1989) Subepithelial fibrosis in the bronchi of asthmatics. Lancet 1 (8637): 520–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wershil BK (1995) Role of mast cells and basophils in gastrointestinal inflammation, in Human Basophils and Mast Cells: Clinical Aspects. (Marone, G., ed.). Chem Immunol, Vol. 62. Karger, Basel, pp. 187–203.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Crowe SE, Perdue MH (1993) Anti-immunoglobulin E-stimulated ion transport in human large and small intestine. Gastroenterology 105: 764–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Li Q-Y, Raza-Ahmad A, MacAulay MA, Lalonde LD, Rowden G, Trethewey E, Dean S (1992) The relationship of mast cells and their secreted products to the volume of fibrosis in posttransplant hearts. Transplantation 53: 1047–1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Levi-Schaffer F, Rubinchik E (1995) Activated mast cells are fibrogenic for 3T3 fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol 104: 999–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Everett ET, Pablos JL, Harley RA, LeRoy EC, Norris JS (1995) The role of mast cells in the development of skin fibrosis in skin-tight mutant mice. Comp Biochem Physiol 110: 159–165.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mori H, Kawada K, Zhang P, Uesugi Y, Sakamoto O, Koda A (1991) Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/W“ mice and mechanism of the suppressive effect of tranilast, an antiallergic drug inhibiting mediator release from mast cells. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 95: 195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Friedman BS, Metcalfe DD (1989) Mastocytosis. In: Biochemistry of the Acute Allergic Reactions. Fifth International Symposium. ( Tauber AI, Wintroub BU, Simon AS, eds.) Liss, New York. pp. 163–173.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Reed JA, Albino AP, McNutt NS (1995) Human cutaneous mast cells express basic fibroblast growth factor. Lab Invest 72: 215–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Thompson HL, Burbelo PD, Gabriel G, Yamada Y, Metcalfe DD (1991) Mutine mast cells synthesize basement membrane components-a potential role in early fibrosis. J Clin Invest 87: 619–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Gruber BL, Marchese MI, Carsons SE, Schechter NM (1990) Human mast cell chymase degrades basement membrane components laminin, fibronectin and type IV collagen. Clin Res 38, 578A (abstract).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lohi J, Harvima I, Keski-Oja J (1992) Pericellular substrates of human mast cell tryptase: 72,000 dalton gelatinase and fibronectin. J Cell Biochem 50: 337–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Tetlow LC, Wooley DE (1995) Distribution, activation and tryptase/chymase phenotype of mast cells in the rheumatoid lesion. Ann Rheum Disease 54: 549–555.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Gruber BL, Schwartz LB (1990) The mast cell as an effector of connective tissue degradation: a study of matrix susceptibility to human mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 171: 1272–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Marks RM, Roche WR, Czerniecki M, Penny R, Nelson DS (1986) Mast cell granules cause proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells. Lab Invest 55: 289–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bashkir P, Doctrow S, Klagsbrun M, Svahn CM, Folkman J, Vlodaysky I (1989) Basic fibroblast growth factor binds to subendothelial matrix and is released by heparinase and heparin-like molecules. Biochem 28: 1737–1743.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rüger B, Dunbar PR, Hasan Q, Sawada H, Kittelberger R, Greenhill N, Neale TJ (1994) Human mast cells produce type VIII collagen in vivo. Int J Exp Path 75: 397–404.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Starkey JR, Crowle PK, Taubenberger S (1988) Mast cell-deficient W/W° mice exhibit a decreased rate of tumor angiogenesis. Int J Cancer 42: 48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Williams RM, Bienenstock J, Stead RH (1995) Mast cells: the neuroimmune connection, in Human Basophils and Mast Cells: Clinical Aspects. (Marone, G., ed.), Chem Immunol, Vol. 61. Karger, Basel, pp. 208–235.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Purcell WM, Atterwill CK (1995) Mast cells in neuroimmune function: neurotoxicological and neuropharmacological perspectives. Neurochem Res 20: 521–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Marshall JS, Bienenstock J (1994) The role of mast cells in inflammatory reactions of the airways, skin and intestine. Curr Opin Immunol 6: 853–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Stead RH, Kosecka-Janiszewska U, Beate Oestreicher A, Dixon MF, Bienenstock J (1991) Remodelling of B-50 (GAP-43)- and NSE-immunoreactive mucosal nerves in the intestines of rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. J Neurosci 11: 3809–3821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Dietsch GN, Hinrichs DJ (1991) Mast cell proteases liberate stable encephalitogenic fragments from intact myelin. Cell Immunol 135: 541–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Nelson RB, Siman R, Iqbal MA, Potter H (1993) Identification of a chymotrypsin-like mast cell protease in rat brain capable of generating the N-terminus of the Alzheimer amyloid (3-protein. J Neurochem 61: 567–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Perdue MH, Kosecka U, Crowe SE (1992) Antigen-mediated effects on epithelial function. Ann NY Acad Sci 664: 325–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Perdue MH, Masson S, Wershil BK, Galli SJ (1991) Role of mast cells in the ion transport abnormalities associated with intestinal anaphylaxis. Correction of the diminished secretory response in genetically mast cell-deficient W/W“ mice by bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Invest 87: 687–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Stack WA, Keely SJ, O’Donoghue DP, Baird AW (1995) Immune regulation of human colonic electrolyte transport in vitro. Gut 36: 395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Powell DW (1991) Immunophysiology of intestinal electrolyte transport, in Handbook of Physiology. The Gastrointestinal System IV. ( Schultz, S.G., ed.). American Physiologic Society, Rockville, MD, pp. 591–641.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Barrett KE (1992) Mechanisms of inflammatory diarrhoea. Gastroenterology 103: 710–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kanwar S, Wallace JL, Befus D, Kubes P (1994) Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition increases epithelial permeability via mast cells. Am J Physiol 266: G222 - G229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Miller HRP, King SJ, Gibson S, Huntley JF, Newlands GFJ, Woodbury RG (1986) Intestinal mucosal mast cells in normal and parasitised rats, in Mast cell differentiation and heterogeneity. ( Befus, A.D., Bienenstock, J., and Denburg, J.A., eds.). Raven, New York, pp. 239–255.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Scudamore CL, Pennington AM, Thornton E, McMillan L, Newlands GFJ, Miller HRP (1995) Basal secretion and anaphylactic release of rat mast cell protease-II (RMCP-II) from ex vivo perfused rat jejunum: translocation of RMCP-II into the gut lumen and its relation to mucosal histology. Gut 37: 235–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angus J. MacDonald
  • Fiona L. Wills
  • Tong-Jun Lin
  • A. Dean Befus

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations