Procrustes Procedures

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick Groenen
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS)


The Procrustes problem is concerned with fitting a configuration (testee) to another (target) as closely as possible. In the simplest case, both configurations have the same dimensionality and the same number of points, which can be brought into a 1-1 correspondence by substantive considerations. Under orthogonal transformations, the testee can be rotated and reflected arbitrarily in an effort to fit it to the target. In addition to such rigid motions, one may also allow for dilations and for shifts. In the oblique case, the testee can also be distorted linearly. Further generalizations include an incompletely specified target configuration, different dimensionalities of the configurations, and different numbers of points in both configurations.


Procrustean Analysis Target Configuration Dilation Factor Oblique Case Congruence Coefficient 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick Groenen
    • 2
  1. 1.Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und AnalysenMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Data TheoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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