Sleep and Sleep Disorders

  • Eric A. Nofzinger
  • Charles F. ReynoldsIII


The public health importance of sleep disorders in late life received recognition in the 1990 National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.1 Their importance was further underscored by the work of a congressionally mandated National Commission of Sleep Disorders and Sleep Research.2 Within the context of geriatric medicine, it is important to consider sleep and its disorders for several reasons.


Sleep Apnea Sleep Disorder Daytime Sleepiness Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Chronic Insomnia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: The treatment of sleep disorders of older people. Sleep. 1991; 14: 169–177.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dement WC, Mitler MM. It’s time to wake up to the importance of sleep disorders. JAMA. 1993; 269: 1548–1550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Human aging: usual and successful. Science. 1987; 237: 143–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Reynolds CF, et al. Sleep disorders in late life: a biopsychosocial model for understanding pathogenesis and intervention. In: Cummings J, Coffey CE, eds. Textbook of Neuropsychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1994: 323–331.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dew MA, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, et al. Psychosocial correlates and sequelae of EEG sleep in healthy elders. J Gerontol. 1994; 49: P8 - P18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kripke DF, Simons RN, Garfinkel L, et al. Short and long sleep and sleeping pills: Is increased mortality associated? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1979; 36: 103–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bliwise DL. Sleep in normal aging and dementia. Sleep. 1993; 16: 40–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Kripke DF, Klauber MR, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing in community-dwelling elderly. Sleep. 1991; 14: 486–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reynolds CF, Hoch CC, Buysse DJ, et al. REM sleep in successful, usual, and pathological aging: the Pittsburgh Experience 1980–1993. J Sleep Res. 1993; 2: 203–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Reynolds CF, Jennings JR, Hoch CC, et al. Daytime sleepiness in the healthy old old: a comparison with young adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991; 39: 957–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ford DE, Kamerow DB. Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders. JAMA. 1989; 262: 1479 1484.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV. Washington, DC: APA; 1994.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morin CW, Culbert JP, Schwartz SM. Non-pharmacological interventions for insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Am J Psychiatry. 1994; 151: 1172–1180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spielman ASJ, Saskin P, Thorpy MJ. Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep. 1987; 10: 45–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Friedman L, Bliwise D, Yesavage JA, et al. A preliminary study comparing sleep restriction and relaxation treatments for insomnia in older adults. J Gerontol. 1991; 46: P1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bootzin RR, Epstein D, Wood JM. Stimulus control instructions. In: Hauri P, ed. Cases Studies in Insomnia. New York: Plenum; 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, et al. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 1230–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Kripke DF, Mason W, et al. Sleep apnea and periodic movements in an aging sample. J Gerontol. 1985; 40: 419–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yesavage J, Bliwise D, Guilleminault C, Carskadon M, et al. Preliminary communication: intellectual deficit and sleep-related respiratory disturbance in the elderly. Sleep. 1985; 8: 30–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bliwise DL, Bliwise NG, Partinen M, et al. Sleep apnea and mortality in an aged cohort. Am J Public Health. 1988; 78: 544–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Partinen M, Telakivi T. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep. 1992; 15: S1 - S4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Partinen M, Guilleminault C. Daytime sleepiness and vas cular morbidity at seven-year follow-up in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Chest. 1990; 97: 27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sanders MH. Medical therapy for sleep apnea. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994: 678–693.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Partinen M. Epidemiology of sleep disorders. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994: 437–452.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller M, Erman M, Hajdukovic R. The treatment of excessive somnolence with stimulant drugs. Sleep. 1993; 16: 203–206.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Kripke DF, Klauber MR, et al. Periodic limb movements in sleep in community-dwelling elderly. Sleep. 1991; 14: 496–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dickel MJ, Mosko SS. Morbidity cut-offs for sleep apnea and periodic-leg movements in predicting subjective cornplaints in seniors. Sleep. 1990; 13: 155–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schenck CH, Bundlie SR, Patterson Al, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a treatable parasomnia affecting older adults. JAMA. 1987; 257: 1786–1789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Czeisler CA, Weitzman ED, Moore-Ede MC, et al. Human sleep: is duration and organization dependent upon its circadian phase. Science. 1980; 210: 1264–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Steriade M. The thalamus and sleep disturbances. In: Guilleminault C, Lugaresi E, Montagna P, et al., eds. Fatal Familial Insomnia: Inherited Prion Diseases, Sleep, and the Thalamus. New York: Raven Press; 1994: 177–189.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jones BE. Basic mechanisms of sleep-wake states. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Prac tice of Sleep Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994: 145–162.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Steriade M, McCarley RW. REM sleep as a biological rhythm: the phenomenology and a structural and mathematical model. In: Brainstem Control of Wakefulness and Sleep. New York: Plenum Press; 1990: 363–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steriade M. Cholinergic blockade of network-and intrinsically generated slow oscillations promotes waking and REM sleep activity patterns in thalamic and cortical neurons. In: Cuello AC, ed. Progress in Brain Research, XCVIII. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1993: 345–355.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reynolds CF, Hoch CC, Buysse DJ, et al. EEG sleep in spousal bereavement and bereavement-related depression of late life. Biol Psychiatry. 1992; 31: 69–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bliwise D. Sleep in dementing illness. In: Oldham JM, Riba MB, eds. Review of Psychiatry, XIII. Washington, DC: 206. American Psychiatric Press; 1994: 757–776.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pollak CP, Perlick D, Linsner J, et al. Sleep problems in the community elderly as predictors of death and nurs ing home placement. J Community Health. 1990; 15: 123–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gallagher-Thompson D, Brooks JO III, Bliwise D, et al. The relations among care-giver stress, “sundowning” symptoms, and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992; 40: 807–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bliwise D, Yesavage JA, Tinklenberg JR. Sundowning and rate of decline in mental function in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia. 1992; 3: 335–341.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Askenasy J, Yahr M. Reversal of sleep disturbance in Parkinson’s disease by antiparkinsonian therapy: a preliminary study. Neurology. 1985; 35: 527–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, et al. Quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep. 1991; 14: 331–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric A. Nofzinger
  • Charles F. ReynoldsIII

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations