Pulmonary Disease

  • James R. WebsterJr.
  • Thomas Cain


The opportunities provided by clinical presentations of an older patient with pulmonary problems are both challenging and rewarding, often demonstrating classic examples of the geriatric paradigm, with interaction of primary, secondary, and tertiary risk factors. The primary risk factors are the changes of expected/anticipated aging, the secondary factors relate to particular disease processes, and the tertiary factors are the modifiable aspects of the patient’s life and illness, for example, exercise, diet, psychological issues, alcohol use, poverty, and, in particular for lung disease, cigarettes.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pulmonary Embolism Smoking Cessation Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. WebsterJr.
  • Thomas Cain

There are no affiliations available

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