Infectious Diseases

  • Gene H. Stollerman

Abstract

Effective diagnosis and management of infectious disease in the elderly require many of the strategies of comprehensive geriatric assessment. Host compromises, functional impairments, and environmental risks in various venues of care—community, home, hospital, and nursing home—all conspire to make infections more frequent and dangerous in the aged. Maintaining host supremacy when it is assailed by comorbidity, organ failure, systemic disease, malnutrition, and senescence of the immune system requires particularly knowledgeable and comprehensive clinical care.

Keywords

Nursing Home Infective Endocarditis Herpes Zoster Influenza Vaccine Pressure Ulcer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Parrino TA, Stollerman GH. The management of pneumonia. Adv Intern Med. 1984; 30: 113–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bartlett JG, O’Keefe P, Tally FP, et al. Bacteriology of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1984; 146: 868–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yoshikawa TT. Treatment of nursing home-acquired pneumonia. J Am GeriatrSoc. 1991; 39: 1040–1041.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balzassarre JS, Kaye D. Special problem of urinary tract infections in the elderly. Med clin north am 1991;75:375— 390.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mims AD, Norman BC, Yamamura RH, et al. Clinically inapparent (asymptomatic) bacteriuria in ambulatory elderly men: epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological findings. J Am GeriatrSoc. 1990; 38: 1209–1214.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karandanis D, Shulman J A. Recent survey of infectious meningitis in adults: review of laboratory findings in bacterial, tuberculous, and aseptic meningitis. South Med J. 1969; 69: 449–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choi C. Bacterial meningitis. Clin Geriatr Med. 1992; 8: 889–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ofek I, Doyle RJ. Bacterial Adhesion to Cells and Tissues. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Norman DC, Grahn D, Yoshikawa TT. Fever and aging. J Am GeriatrSoc. 1985; 33: 859–863.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yoshikawa TT. Unique aspects of infection in older adults. In: Yoshikawa TT, Norman DC, eds. Antimicrobial Therapy in the Elderly Adult. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1994: 1–7.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Task Force on Adult Immunization: American College of Physicians and Infectious Disease Society of America. Guide for Adult Immunization. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 1994.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ACIP. Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR. 1994; 43: 1–10.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    CDC. National Adult Immunization Awareness Week, 1995. MMWR. 1995; 44: 741.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Govaert ME, Thijs CTMEN, Masurel N, et al. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. JAMA. 1994; 272: 1661–1665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, et al. Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994; 271: 1831–1835.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shapiro ED, Berg AT, Austrian R, et al. The protective efficacy of polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 1453–1460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    CDC. Diphtheria epidemic: new independent states of the former Soviet Union, 1990–1994. MMWR. 1995; 44: 177–181.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Watson BM, Piercy SA, Plotkin SA, et al. Modified chicken pox in children immunized with the Oka/Merck varicella vaccine. Pediatrics. 1993; 91: 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yoshikawa TT, Norman DC. Antimicrobial Therapy in the Elderly Patient. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1994.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Greenblatt DJ, Sellers EM, Shader RI. Drug disposition in old age. N Engl J Med 1982; 306: 1081–1088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Collard P, Poitevim M, Milovanovic A, et al. Kinetic study of serum penicillin concentration after single doses benzathine and benethamine penicillins in young and old people. BrJVener Dis. 1980; 56: 355–362.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Douglas JG, Bax RP, Munro JF. The pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime in the elderly. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1980; 6: 543–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ljundberg B, Nilsson-Ehle I. Pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in the elderly. Rev Infect Dis. 1987; 9: 250–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bichet DG, Schrier RW. Renal function and diseases in the aged. In: Schrier RW, ed. Clinical Internal Medicine in the Aged. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1982: 211–221.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lindeman RD, Tobin J, Shock NW. Longitudinal studies on the rate of decline in renal function with age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985; 33: 278–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greenblatt BJ, Abernathy DR, Shader RI. Pharmacokinetic aspects of drug therapy in the elderly. Ther Drug Monit. 1986; 8: 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pharmacy Gold Formulary Committee. PGI Prime National Drug Formulary St. Paul, MN:PGFC;1995–1996.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gonzales R, Sande M. What will it take to stop physicians from prescribing antibiotics in acute bronchitis? Lancet. 1995; 345: 665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease. Prevention of rheumatic fever. Circulation. 1988; 78: 1082.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stollerman GH. Penicillin therapy for streptococcal pharyngitis—what we have learned in 50 years. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 1995; 4: 54–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stollerman GH. Rhematogenic group A streptococci and the return of rheumatic fever. Adv Intern Med. 1990; 35: 1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Slavin RG. Management of sinusitis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991; 39: 212–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chodosh, S. Bronchitis and asthma. In: Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG, Blacklow NR, eds. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1992: 476–485.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yoshokawa TT. Unique aspects of urinary tract infection in the geriatric patient. Gerontology. 1984; 30: 339–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Meares EM Jr. Acute and chronic prostatitis: diagnosis and treatment. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1987; 1: 855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Guay DRP. Current role of fluoroquinolones. Pharmacotherapy. 1992; 12 (6 Pt 2): 71S - 85S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schlievert PM, MacDonald KL. Toxic shock syndrome. In: Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG, Blacklow NR, eds. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1992: 889–894.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Steinberg DG, Stollerman GH. Dangerous pyogenic skin infections. Hosp Pract. 1989; 24: 101–106.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kertesc D, Chow AW. Infected pressure and diabetic ulcers. Clin Geriatr Med. 1992; 8: 835–852.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Franson TR, Duthie DH Jr, Cooper JE, et al. Prevalence survey of infections and their predisposing factors at a hospital-based nursing home care unit. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1986; 34: 95–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Strausbaugh LG, Jacobson C, Sewell DL, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in extended-care facilities: experiences in a Veterans Affairs nursing home and a review of the literature. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1991; 12: 36–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Christensen GD, Parisi JT, Bisno AL, et al. Characterization of clinically significant strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol. 1983; 18: 258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bradley SF. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection. Clin Geriatr Med. 1992; 8: 853–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brandeis GH, Ooi WL, Hossain M, et al. A longitudinal study of risk factors associated with the formation of pressure ulcers in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994; 42: 388–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Murray PR, Washington JA. Microscopic and bacteriologic analysis of expectorated sputum. Mayo Clinic Proc. 1975; 50: 339–344.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abramowicz M. Clarithromycin and azithromycin. Med Lett Drugs Ther 1992;34:45^8.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nicolle LE, Mayhew WJ, Bryan L. Prospective randomized comparison of therapy and no therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in institutionalized elderly women. Am J Med. 1987; 83: 27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Berk SL, Verghese A. Antibiotic therapy in the nursing home. In: Verghese A, Berk SL, eds. Infections in Nursing Homes and Long-Term Care Facilities. Basel: Karger; 1990: 220–223.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Carter AO, Borczyk A A, Carlson JA, et al. A severe outbreak of E. coli 0157:H7-associated hemorrhagic colitis in a nursing home. N Engl J Med. 1987; 317: 1496–1500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johnson S, Homann SR, Bettin KM, et al. Treatment of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriers (fecal excreters) with vancomycin and metronidazole: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1992; 117: 297–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bartlett JG. The 10 most common questions asked about C. difficile-associated diarrhea/colitis. Infect Dis Clin Pract. 1992; 1: 254–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Levison ME, Bush LM. Peritonitis and other intra-abdominal infections. In: Mandell GL, Douglas KG, Bennett JE, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1990: 636–639.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Musher DM, Kubitschek KR, Crennan J, et al. Pneumonia and acute febrile tracheobronchitis due to Hemophilus influenzae. Ann Intern Med. 1983; 49: 444.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Craven DE, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia in the 1990s. Update of epidemiology and risk factors. Semin Respir Infect. 1990; 5: 157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bartlett JG. Anaerobic bacterial infections of the lung. Chest. 1987; 6: 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Levison, ME. Pneumonia, including necrotizing pulmonary infection (lung abscess). In: Isselbacher K, et al., eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 13th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994: 1184–1191.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chan R, et al. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for com-munity-acquired lower respiratory infection in a general hospital: open randomised controlled trial. Br Med J. 1995; 310: 1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Degelau J, Guay D, Straub K, et al. Effectiveness of oralantibiotic treatment in nursing home-acquired pneumonia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 43: 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stead WW, Lofgren JP, Warren E, et al. Tuberculosis as an endemic and nosocomial infection among the elderly in nursing homes. N Engl J Med. 1985; 312: 1483–1487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liaw Y-S, Yang PC, Yu CJ, et al. Clinical spectrum of tuberculosis in older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 43: 256–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Collins MM, Stollerman GH. Disseminated tuberculosis: a presumptive diagnosis. Hosp Pract. 1993; 28 (12): 63–79.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    King D, Davies PDO. Disseminated tuberculosis in the elderly: still a diagnosis overlooked. J R Soc Med. 1992; 85: 48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Alvarez S, Kasprzyk DR, Freundl M. Two-stage skin testing for tuberculosis in a domiciliary population. Am Rev RespirDis. 1987; 136: 1193–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Frieden TR, Sterling T, Pablos Mendez A, et al. The emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis in New York City. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 521–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    American Thoracic Society and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculous infection in adults and children. Am J Respir Crit Care. 1994; 149: 1359–1374.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jacobs WR Jr, Barletta RG, Udani R, et al. Rapid assessment of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by means of luciferase reporter phages. Science. 1993; 260: 819–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Goetzler R, Stokes J III, Anderson K. Prognosis of subjects in the Framingham study with rheumatic heart disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985; 33: 693–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kaye D. Changing pattern of infective endocarditis. Am J Med. 1985; 78 (suppl 6B): 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Eliopoulos GM, Eliopoulos CT. Therapy of enterococcal infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1990; 9: 118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tornos P, Sanz E, Permanyer-Miralda G, et al. Late prosthetic valve endocarditis: immediate and long-term prognosis. Chest. 1992; 101: 37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Korzeniowski OM, Kaye D. Endocarditis. In: Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG, Blacklow NR, eds. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1992: 548–557.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Giller RH, Winistorfer S, Grose C. Cellular and humoral immunity to varicella-zoster virus glycoproteins in immune and susceptible human subjects. J Infect Dis. 1989; 160: 919–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gershon AA, LaRussa P, Hardy I, et al. Varicella vaccine: the American experience. J Infect Dis. 1992; 166: 563–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Watson BM, Piercy SA, Plotkin SA, et al. Modified chickenpox in children immunized with the Oka/Merck varicella vaccine. Pediatrics. 1993; 91: 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tyring S, et al. Famciclovir for the treatment of acute herpes zoster: effects on acute disease and post-herpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 123: 89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Esmann Z, Kroon S, Peterslund NA, et al. Prednisolone does not prevent postherpetic neuralgia. Lancet. 1987; 2: 126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gantz NM. Tuberculin skin testing: when and how to use it. Hosp Pract. 1986; 21 (9A): 30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gene H. Stollerman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations