Structure of Objectivist Studies

  • Charles P. Friedman
  • Jeremy C. Wyatt
Part of the Computers and Medicine book series (C+M)


This chapter begins to explore objectivist studies in detail. In Chapters 4–7 we address how to design studies, how to develop measurement procedures to collect data, and how subsequently to analyze the data. The methods introduced relate directly to the comparison-based, objectives-based, and decision-facilitation approaches to evaluation as introduced in Chapter 2. They are useful for addressing most of the purposes of evaluation in informatics, the specific questions that can be explored, and the types of studies that can be undertaken—all as introduced in Chapter 3.


Information Resource Objectivist Study Object Class Measurement Study Medical Informatics 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Feinstein AR: Clinimetrics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987:viii.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Michaelis J, Wellek S, Willems JL: Reference standards for software evaluation. Methods Inf Med 1990;29:289–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clarke JR, Webber BL, Gertner A, Rymon KJ: On-line decision support for emergency trauma management. Proc Symp Comput Applications Med Care 1994; 18:1028.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shortliffe E: Computer programs to support medical decisions. JAMA 1987;258:61–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Quaglini S, Stefanelli M, Barosi G, Berzuini A: A performance evaluation of the expert system ANAEMIA. Comp Biomed Res 1987;21:307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walter SD, Irwig LM: Estimation of test error rates, disease prevalence and relative risk from misclassified data: a review. J Clin Epidemiol 1988;41:923–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Phelps CD, Hutson A: Estimating diagnostic test accuracy using a “fuzzy gold standard.” Med Decis Making 1995;15:44–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bankowitz RA, McNeil MA, Challinor SM, Parker RC, Kapoor WN, Miller RA: A computer-assisted medical diagnostic consultation service: implementation and prospective evaluation of a prototype. Ann Intern Med 1989;110:824–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Teach RL, Shortliffe EH: An analysis of physician attitudes regarding computer-based clinical consultation systems. Comput Biomed Res 1981;14:542–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McDonald CJ, Hui SL, Smith DM, et al.: Reminders to physicians from an introspective computer medical record: a two-year randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:130–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Guyatt GH, Tugwell P: Clinical Epidemiology: A Basic Science for Clinical Medicine. Boston: Little Brown, 1991.Google Scholar

Measurement Studies

  1. Baggs JG: Two instruments to measure interdisciplinary bioethical decision making. Heart Lung 1993;22(6):542–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey JE: Development of an instrument for the management of computer user attitudes in hospitals. Methods Inf Med 1990;29:51–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen BA, Waugh GW: Assessing computer anxiety. Psychol Rep 1989;65:735–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R: A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983;24:385–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jette AM, Davies AR, Cleary PD, et al: The functional status questionnaire reliability and validity when used in primary care. J Gen Intern Med 1986;1:143–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kernan MC, Howard GS: Computer anxiety and computer attitudes: an investigation of construct and predictive validity issues. Educ Psychol Meas 1990;50:681–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Loyd BH, Gressard C: Reliability and factorial validity of computer attitude scales. Educ Psychol Meas 1984;44:501–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Meadows KA, Fromson B, Gillespie C, et al: Development, validation, and application of compter-linked knowledge questionnaires in diabetes education. Diabetic Med 1988;5:61–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Moore GC, Benbasat I: Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Inf Syst Res 1991;2: 192–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nickell GS, Pinto JN: The computer attitude scale. Comput Hum Behav 1986;2:301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pillar B: The measurement of technology anxiety. Proc Symp Comput Applications Med Care 1985;9:570–574.Google Scholar
  12. Reece MJ, Gable RK: The development and validation of a measure of general attitudes toward computers. Educ Psychol Meas 1982;42:913–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Shore BE, Franks P: Physician satisfaction with patient encounters: reliability and validity of an encounter-specific questionnaire. Med Care 1986;24:580–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shortell SM, Rousseau DM, Gillies RR, Devers KJ, Simons TL: Organizational assessment in intensive care units (ICUs): construct development, reliability, and validity of the ICU nurse-physician questionnaire. Med Care 1991;29:709–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Staggers N: The Staggers nursing computer experience questionnaire. Appl Nurs Res 1994;7:97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stronge JH, Brodt A: Assessment of nurses’ attitudes towards computerization. Comput Nurs 1985;3:154–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Thomas B: Development of an instrument to assess attitudes toward computing in nursing. Comput Nurs 1988;6:122–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Demonstration and Measurement Issue Studies

  1. Anderson RM, Donnelly MB, Hess GE: An assessment of computer use, knowledge, and attitudes of diabetes educators. Diab Educ 1992;18:40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JG, Jay SJ, Schweer HM, Anderson MM: Perceptions of the impact of computers on medical practice and physician use of a hospital information system. Proc Symp Comput Applications Med Care 1985;9:565–570.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson JG, Jay SJ, Schweer HM, et al: Physician utilization of computers in medical practice: policy implications based on a structural model. Soc Sci Med 1986;23:259–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson JG, Jay SJ, Schweer HM, et al: Why doctors don’t use computers: some empirical findings. JR Soc Med 1986;79:142–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown SH, Coney RD: Changes in computer anxiety and attitudes related to clinical information system use. J Am Med Inf Assoc 1994;1:381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burkes M: Identifying and relating nurses’ attitudes toward computer use. Comput Nurs 1991;9:190–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dixon DR, Dixon BJ: Adoption of information technology enabled innovations by primary care physicians: model and questionnaire development. Proc Symp Comput Applications Med Care 1994;18:631–635.Google Scholar
  8. Farrell AD, Cuseo-Ott L, Fenerty M: Development and evaluation of a scale for measuring practitioners’ attitudes toward computer applications. Comput Hum Behav 1988;4:207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gerritty MS, DeVellis RF, Earp JA: Physicians’ reactions to uncertainty in patient care: a new measure and new insights. Med Care 1990,28:724–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koohang AA: A study of attitudes towards computers: anxiety, confidence, liking, and perception of usefulness. J Res Comput Educ 1989;2:137–150.Google Scholar
  11. Melhorn JM, Legier WK, Clark GM: Current attitudes of medical personnel towards computers. Comput Biomed Res 1979;2:327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Murphy CA, Maynard M, Morgan G: Pretest and post-test attitudes of nursing personnel toward a patient care information system. Comput Nurs 1994;12:239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Reznikoff M, Holland CH, Stroebel CF: Attittudes toward computers among employees of a psychiatric hospital. Ment Hyg 1967;51:419–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Scarpa R, Smeltzer SC, Jaison B: Attitudes of nurses toward computerization: a replication. Comput Nurs 1992;10:72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Schwirian PA, Malone JA, Stone VJ, et al: Computers in nursing practice: a comparison of the attitudes of nurses and nursing students. Comput Nurs 1989;7:168–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Startsman TS, Robinson RE: The attitudes of medical and paramedical personnel toward computers. Comput Biomed Res 1982;5:218–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Teach RL, Shortliffe EH: An analysis of physician attitudes regarding computer-based clinical consultation systems. Comput Biomed Res 1981;4:542–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Thomas B: Development of a measure to assess attitudes toward computing in nursing. Proc Symp Comput Applications Med Care 1988;12:355–357.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles P. Friedman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jeremy C. Wyatt
    • 3
  1. 1.University of North CarolinaPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Center for Biomedical InformaticsUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Imperial Cancer Research FundLondonUK

Personalised recommendations