Paleontology and Biochronology of Fossil Localities in the Manonga Valley, Tanzania

  • Terry Harrison
  • Eric Baker
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 14)

Abstract

Comparisons of the Manonga Valley faunas with those from other East African localities for which radiometric dates have been obtained allow the Manonga Valley sequence to be placed within a broader chronological framework. The results of a biochronological analysis produce consistent estimates of the age range of the sequence, and indicate that the fossiliferous sediments were laid down during the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there are several constraining factors that limit the degree of precision of such correlations, as follows: (1) There are few late Miocene and early Pliocene sites that have been dated radiometrically, and these are restricted geographically to the East African Rift valley (i.e., the Turkana basin, the Baringo basin, the Samburu Hills, and the Middle Awash Valley); (2) with the exception of Lotha-gam in northern Kenya and Langebaanweg in South Africa, the mammalian faunas from this time period are either poorly known or have not been the subject of detailed study; and (3) few researchers have made detailed firsthand comparisons between late Miocene and early Pliocene faunas from fossil localities in North, East, and South Africa.

Keywords

Late Miocene Rift Valley Cheek Tooth Mammalian Fauna Fossil Mammal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguirre, E., & Leakey, P., 1974, Nakali: Nueva fauna de Hipparion del Rift Valley de Kenya. Estud. Geol. 30:219–227.Google Scholar
  2. Barry, J. C., and Flynn, L. J., 1990, Key biostratigraphic events in the Siwalik sequence, in: European Neogene Mammal Chronology (E. H. Lindsay, V. Fahlbusch, and P. Mein, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 557–571.Google Scholar
  3. Behrensmeyer, A. K., 1976, Lothagam Hill, Kanapoi, and Ekora: A general summary of stratigraphy and faunas, in: Earliest Man and Environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin (Y. Coppens, F. C. Howell, G. Ll. Isaac, and R. E. F. Leakey, eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 163–170.Google Scholar
  4. Bernor, R. L., and Pavlakis, P. P., 1987, Zoogeographic relationships of the Sahabi large mammal fauna (early Pliocene, Libya), in: Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi (N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 349–383.Google Scholar
  5. Broin, F. de, and Gmira, S., 1994, Les chéloniens dulçaquicoles du rift occidental, Ouganda, in Geology and Paleobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire, Vol. II, Paleobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orleans, pp. 157–186.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, F. H., 1994, Development of Pliocene and Pleistocene chronology of the Turkana basin, East Africa, and its relation to other sites, in: Integrative Paths to the Past (R. S. Corruccini and R. L. Ciochon, eds.), Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 123–145.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, F. H., and Feibel, C. S., 1991, Stratigraphy, depositional environments, and palaeogeography of the Koobi Fora Formation, in: Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 3, The Fossil Ungulates: Geology, Fossil Artiodactyls, and Palaeoenvironments (J. M. Harris, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, F. H., and Lajoie, K. R., 1971, Radiometric age determinations on Pliocene/Pleistocene formations in the lower Omo Basin, Ethiopia, Nature 229:483–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Churcher, C. S., 1978, Giraffidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 509–535.Google Scholar
  10. Churcher, C. S., and Richardson, M. L., 1978, Equidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 379–422.Google Scholar
  11. Cooke, H. B. S., 1958, Observations relating to Quaternary environments in East and Southern Africa, Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr. 60 Annex:1–74.Google Scholar
  12. Cooke, H. B. S., 1978a, Africa the physical setting, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 17–45.Google Scholar
  13. Cooke, H. B. S., 1978b, Pliocene-Pleistocene Suidae from Hadar, Ethiopia, Kirtlandia 29:1–63.Google Scholar
  14. Cooke, H. B. S., 1983, Horses, elephants and pigs as clues in the African later Cainozoic, in: Late Cainozoic Palaeoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere (J. C. Vogel, ed.), A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 473–482.Google Scholar
  15. Cooke, H. B. S., 1985, Plio-Pleistocene suidae in relation to African hominid deposits, in: L’environnement des hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène, Fondation Singer-Polignac, Masson, Paris, pp. 101–117.Google Scholar
  16. Cooke, H. B. S., 1987, Fossil Suidae from Sahabi, Libya, in: Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi (N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 255–266.Google Scholar
  17. Cooke, H. B. S., and Hendey, Q. B., 1992, Nyanzachoerus (Mammalia: Suidae: Tetraconodontinae) from Langebaanweg, South Africa, Durban Mus. Novit. 17:1–20.Google Scholar
  18. Cooke, H. B. S., and Wilkinson, A. F., 1978, Suidae and Tayassuidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 435–482.Google Scholar
  19. Deino, A., Tauxe, L., Monaghan, M., and Drake, R., 1990, 40Ar/39Ar age calibration of the litho- and paleomagnetic stratigraphies of the Ngorora Formation, Kenya, J. Geol. 98:567–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Denys, C., 1987, Fossil rodents (other than Pedetidae) from Laetoli, in: Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 118–170.Google Scholar
  21. Drake, R., & Curtis, G. H., 1987, K-Ar geochronology of the Laetoli fossil localities, in: Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 48–52.Google Scholar
  22. Eisenmann, V., 1983, Family Equidae, in: Koobi Fora Research Project, Vol. 2, The Fossil Ungulates: Probocides, Perissodactyla and Suidae (J. M. Harris, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 156–214.Google Scholar
  23. Eisenmann, V., 1985, Les Equidés des gisements de la vallée de l’Omo en Ethiopie (collections françaises), in: Les Faunes Plio-Pléistocènes de la basse valée de l’Omo (Ethiopie), Vol. 1: Perissodactyles-Artiodactyles (Bovidae), CNRS, Paris, pp. 13–55.Google Scholar
  24. Eisenmann, V., 1994, Equidae of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda, in: Geology and Paleobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. II: Paleobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orleans, pp. 289–307.Google Scholar
  25. Feibel, C. S., Harris, J. M., & Brown, F. H., 1991, Palaeoenvironmental context for the late Neogene of the Turkana Basin, in: Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 3, The Fossil Ungulates: Geology, Fossil Artiodactyls, and Palaeoenvironments (J. M. Harris, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 321–370.Google Scholar
  26. Gaudant, J., 1987, A preliminary report on the Osteichthyan fish-fauna from the Upper Neogene of Sahabi, Libya, in: Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi (N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 91–99.Google Scholar
  27. Gentry, A. W., 1976, Bovidae of the Omo Group deposits, in: Earliest Man and Environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin (Y. Coppens, F. C. Howell, G. LI. Isaac, and R. E. F. Leakey, eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 275–292.Google Scholar
  28. Gentry, A. W., 1978a, Bovidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 540–572.Google Scholar
  29. Gentry, A. W., 1978b, The fossil Bovidae of the Baringo area, Kenya, in: Geological Background to Fossil Man (W. W. Bishop, ed.), Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, pp. 293–308.Google Scholar
  30. Gentry, A. W., 1980, Fossil Bovidae (Mammalia) from Langebaanweg, South Africa, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 79:213–337.Google Scholar
  31. Gentry, A. W., 1981, Notes on Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Hadar Formation, and from Amado and Gerani, Ethiopia, Kirtlandia 33:1–30.Google Scholar
  32. Gentry, A. W., 1985, Pliocene and Pleistocene Bovidae in Africa, in: L’environnement des Hominidés au Plio-Pléistocène, Fondation Singer-Polignac, Masson, Paris, pp. 119–132.Google Scholar
  33. Gentry, A. W., 1987, Pliocene Bovidae from Laetoli, in: Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 378–408.Google Scholar
  34. Gentry, A. W., and Gentry, A., 1978, Fossil Bovidae (Mammalia) of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol.) 29:289–446.Google Scholar
  35. Geraads, D., 1985, Sivatherium maurusium (Pomel) (Giraffidae, Mammalia) du Pléistocène de la République de Djibouti, Paläont. Z. 59:311–321.Google Scholar
  36. Geraads, D., 1986, Remarques sur la systématique et la phylogénie des Giraffidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia), Geobios 19:465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geraads, D., 1989, Vertébrés fossiles du Miocène supérieur du Djebel Krechem el Artsouma (Tunisie centrale). Comparaisons biostratigraphiques, Geobios 22:777–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Geraads, D., and Thomas, H., 1994, Bovidés du Plio-Pléistocène d’Ouganda, in: Geology and Paleobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. II: Palaeobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orléans, pp. 383–407.Google Scholar
  39. Greenwood, P. H., 1951, Fish remains from Miocene deposits of Rusinga Island and Kavirondo Province, Kenya, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4:1192–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Greenwood, P. H., 1957, Fish remains from the Mumba Cave, Lake Eyasi, Mitt. Geol. Staatsinst 26:125–130.Google Scholar
  41. Greenwood, P. H., 1959, Quaternary fish-fossils, Explor. Parc. Natn Albert Miss. J. Heinzelin Braucourt (1950) 4:1–80.Google Scholar
  42. Greenwood, P. H., 1960, Fossil denticipid fishes from East Africa, Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol). 5:1–11.Google Scholar
  43. Greenwood, P. H., 1972, New fish fossils from the Pliocene of Wadi Natrun, Egypt, J. Zool. Lond. 168:503–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greenwood, P. H., 1973, Fish fossils from the late Miocene of Tunisia, Notes Serv. Géol. Tunis. 37:41–72.Google Scholar
  45. Greenwood, P. H., 1974, Review of Cenozoic freshwater fish faunas in Africa, Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4:211–232.Google Scholar
  46. Greenwood, P. H., and Howes, G. J., 1975, Neogene fossil fishes from the Lake Albert-Lake Edward Rift (Zaire), Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol). 26:71–127.Google Scholar
  47. Greenwood, P. H., and Patterson, C., 1967, A fossil osteoglossoid fish from Tanzania (East Africa), J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 47:211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Greenwood, P. H., and Todd, E. J., 1970, Fish remains from Olduvai, Fos. Vert. Afr. 2:226–241.Google Scholar
  49. Guérin, C., 1985, Les rhinocéros et les chalicothères (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) des gisements de la vallée de l’Omo en Ethiopie (collections françaises), in: Les faunes pliopléistocènes de le basse vallée de l’Omo (Ethiopie), Vol. 1, Perissodactyles, Artiodactyles Bovidae (Y. Coppens, ed.), CNRS, Paris, pp. 67–95.Google Scholar
  50. Guérin, C., 1987, Fossil Rhinocerotidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Laetoli, in: Laetoli, A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 320–348.Google Scholar
  51. Guérin, C., 1994, Les rhinocéros (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) du Néogène de l’Ouganda, in: Geology and Palaeobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. II: Palaeobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orleans, pp. 263–279.Google Scholar
  52. Haileab, B., and Brown, F. H., 1992, Turkana Basin-Middle Awash Valley correlations and the age of the Sagantole and Hadar Formations, J. Hum. Evol. 22:453–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hamilton, A. C., 1982, Environmental History of East Africa: A study of the Quaternary, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Hamilton, W. R., 1978, Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 496–508.Google Scholar
  55. Harris, J. M., 1976, Pleistocene Giraffidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from East Rudolf, Kenya, Foss. Vert. Afr. 4:283–332.Google Scholar
  56. Harris, J. M., 1978, Deinotheroidea and Barytheroidea, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 315–335.Google Scholar
  57. Harris, J. M., 1983, Family Rhinocerotidae, in: Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 2, The Fossil Ungulates: Proboscides, Perissodactyla and Suidae (J. M. Harris, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 130–155.Google Scholar
  58. Harris, J. M., 1987, Fossil Giraffidae from Sahabi, Libya, in: Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi (N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 317–321.Google Scholar
  59. Harris, J. M., 1991a, Family Bovidae, in: Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 3, The Fossil Ungulates: Geology, Fossil Artiodactyls, and Palaeoenvironments (J. M. Harris, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 139–320.Google Scholar
  60. Harris, J. M., 1991b, Family Giraffidae, in: Koobi Fora Research Project, Volume 3, The Fossil Ungulates: Geology, Fossil Artiodactyls, and Palaeoenvironments (J. M. Harris, ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 93–138.Google Scholar
  61. Harris, J. M., Brown, F. H., and Leakey, M. G., 1988, Stratigraphy and paleontology of Pliocene and Pleistocene localities west of Lake Turkana, Kenya, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles County No. 399, pp. 1–128.Google Scholar
  62. Harrison, T., 1991, Paleoanthropological Exploration in the Manonga Valley, Northern Tanzania, Nyame Akuma 36:25–31.Google Scholar
  63. Harrison, T., 1993, Further paleoanthropological research in the Manonga Valley of north-central Tanzania, Nyame Akuma 39:49–57.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, T., 1996, Renewed paleontological excavations at the early Eocene site of Mahenge in north-central Tanzania, J. Vert. Paleontol. 16, Suppl. to Number 3:40A.Google Scholar
  65. Harrison, T., and Verniers, J., 1993, Preliminary study of the stratigraphy and mammalian palaeontology of Neogene sites in the Manonga Valley, northern Tanzania, N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 190:57–74.Google Scholar
  66. Harrison, T., Verniers, J., Mbago, M. L., and Krigbaum, J., 1993, Stratigraphy and mammalian palaeontology of Neogene sites in the Manonga Valley, northern Tanzania, Discovery and Innovation 5:269–275.Google Scholar
  67. Hay, R. L., 1987, Geology of the Laetoli area, in: Laetoli, A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 23–47.Google Scholar
  68. Hendey, Q. B., 1970a, The age of the fossiliferous deposits at Langebaanweg, Cape Province, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 56:119–131.Google Scholar
  69. Hendey, Q. B., 1970b, A review of the geology and paleontology of the Plio/Pleistocene deposits at Langebaanweg, Cape Province, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 56:75–117.Google Scholar
  70. Hendey, Q. B., 1976, The Pliocene fossil occurrences in ‘E’ Quarry, Langebaanweg, South Africa, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 69:215–247.Google Scholar
  71. Hendey, Q. B., 1978, The age of the fossils from Baard’s Quarry, Langebaanweg, South Africa, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 75:1–24.Google Scholar
  72. Hendey, Q. B., 1981, Geological succession at Langebaanweg, Cape Province, and global events of the late Tertiary, 5. Afr. J. Sci. 77:33–38.Google Scholar
  73. Hendey, Q. B., 1982, Langebaanweg. A Record of Past Life, South African Museum, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  74. Hendey, Q. B., 1984, Southern African late Tertiary vertebrates, in: Southern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments (R. G. Klein, ed.), A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 81–106.Google Scholar
  75. Hill, A., 1987, Causes of perceived faunal change in the later Neogene of East Africa, J. Hum. Evol. 16:583–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hill, A., 1994, Late Miocene and early Pliocene hominoids from Africa, in: Integrative Paths to the Past (R. S. Corruccini and R. L. Ciochon, eds.), Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 123–145.Google Scholar
  77. Hill, A., Drake, R., Tauxe, L., Monaghan, M., Barry, J. C., Behrensmeyer, A. K., Curtis, G., Fine Jacobs, B., Jacobs, L., Johnson, N., and Pilbeam, D., 1985, Neogene palaeontology and geochronology of the Baringo Basin, Kenya, J. Hum. Evol. 14:759–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hill, A., Curtis, G., and Drake, R., 1986, Sedimentary stratigraphy of the Tugen Hills, Baringo, Kenya, in: Sedimentation in the African Rifts (L. E. Frostick, R. W. Renault, I. Reid, and J. J. Tiercelin, eds.), Geological Society Special Publication No. 25, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 285–295.Google Scholar
  79. Hill, A., Ward, S., & Brown, B., 1992, Anatomy and age of the Lothagam mandible, J. Hum. Evol. 22:439–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hooijer, D. A., 1972, A late Pliocene rhinoceros from Langebaanweg, Cape Province, Ann. S. Aft. Mus. 59:151–191.Google Scholar
  81. Hooijer, D. A., 1978, Rhinocerotidae, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 371–378.Google Scholar
  82. Hooijer, D. A., and Maglio, V. J., 1973, The earliest hipparion south of Sahara in the late Miocene of Kenya, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B 76:311–315.Google Scholar
  83. Hooijer, D. A., and Maglio, V. J., 1974, Hipparions from the late Miocene and Pliocene of Northwestern Kenya, Zool. Verh. 134:1–34.Google Scholar
  84. Howell, F. C., 1987, Preliminary observations on Carnivora from the Sahabi Formation (Libya), in: Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi (N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 153–181.Google Scholar
  85. James, G. T., and Slaughter, B. H., 1974, A primitive new Middle Pliocene murid from Wadi Natrun, Egypt, Ann. Geol. Surv. Egypt 4:333–362.Google Scholar
  86. Joleaud, L., 1937, Remarques sur les giraffidés fossiles d’Afrique, Mammalia 1:85–96.Google Scholar
  87. Kalb, J. E., 1993, Refined stratigraphy of the hominid-bearing Awash Group, Middle Awash Valley, Afar Depression, Ethiopia, Newsl. Stratigr. 29:21–62.Google Scholar
  88. Kalb, J. E., Jolly, C. J., Tebedge, S., Mebrate, A., Smart, C., Oswald, E. B., Whitehead, P. F, Wood, C. B., Adefris, T., and Rawn-Schatzinger, V., 1982a, Vertebrate faunas from the Awash Group, Middle Awash Valley, Afar, Ethiopia, J. Vert. Paleontol. 2:237–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kalb, J. E., Jolly, C. J., Mebrate, A., Tebedge, S., Smart, C., Oswald, E. B., Cramer, D., Whitehead, P., Wood, C. B., Conroy, G. C., Adefris, T., Sperling, L., and Kana, B., 1982b, Fossil mammals and artefacts from the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia, Nature 298:25–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kendall, R. L., 1969, An ecological history of the Lake Victoria Basin, Ecol. Monogr. 39:121–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leakey, M. G., Feibel, C. S., Bernor, R. L., Harris, J. M., Cerling, T. E., Stewart, K. M., Storrs, G. W., Walker, A., Werdelin, L., and Winkler, A. J., 1996, Lothagam: A record of faunal change in the late Miocene of East Africa, J. Vert. Paleontol. 16:556–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Leakey, M. G., Feibel, C. S., McDougall, I., and Walker, A., 1995, New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya, Nature 376:565–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lehmann, U., and Thomas, H., 1987, Fossil Bovidae (Mammalia) from the Mio-Pliocene of Sahabi, Libya, in: Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi (N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 323–335.Google Scholar
  94. Livingstone, D. A., 1975, Late Quaternary climatic change in Africa, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 6:249–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lundberg, J. G., 1993, African-South American freshwater fish clades and continental drift: Problems with a paradigm, in: Riological Relationships between Africa and South America (P. Goldblatt, ed.), Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 156–199.Google Scholar
  96. Marean, C. W., 1990, Late Quaternary Paleoenvironments and Faunal Exploitation in East Africa, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  97. Mein, P., 1989, Updating of MN Zones, in: European Neogene Mammal Chronology (E. H. Lindsay, V. Fahlbusch, and P. Mein, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 73–90.Google Scholar
  98. Nakaya, H., 1994, Faunal change of late Miocene Africa and Eurasia: Mammalian fauna from the Namurungule Formation, Samburu Hills, northern Kenya, Aft. Stud. Monogr., Suppl. 20:1–112.Google Scholar
  99. Nakaya, H., Pickford, M., Nakano, Y., and Ishida, H., 1984, The late Miocene large mammalian fauna from the Namurungule Formation, Samburu Hills, northern Kenya, Aft. Studies Monogr., Suppl. 2:87–131.Google Scholar
  100. Patterson, B., Behrensmeyer, A. K., and Sill, W. D., 1970, Geology and fauna of a new Pliocene locality in north-western Kenya, Nature 226:918–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Petter, G., 1994, Carnivores des régions de Nkondo et de Kisegi-Nyabusosi (Rift Occidental, Ouganda), in: Geology and Paleobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. II: Palaeobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orléans, pp. 207–215.Google Scholar
  102. Pickford, M., 1994, Late Cenozoic crocodiles (Reptilia: Crocodylidae) from the Western Rift, Uganda, in: Geology and Palaeobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. II: Palaeobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orléans, pp. 137–155.Google Scholar
  103. Pickford, M., and Thomas, H., 1984, An aberrant new bovid (Mammalia) in subrecent deposits from Rusinga Island, Kenya, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet, B 87:441–452.Google Scholar
  104. Pickford, M., Senut, B., and Hadoto, D., 1993, Geology and Palaeobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. I: Geology, CIFEG Occasional Papers 24, CIFEG, Orléans.Google Scholar
  105. Pitman, W. C., Cande, S., LaBrecque, J., and Pindell, J., 1993, Fragmentation of Gondwana: The separation of Africa from South America, in: Riological Relationships between Africa and South America (P. Goldblatt, ed.), Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 15–34.Google Scholar
  106. Qiu Zhanxiang, 1989, The Chinese Neogene mammalian biochronology—its correlation with the European Neogene mammalian zonation, in: European Neogene Mammal Chronology (E. H. Lindsay, V. Fahlbusch, and P. Mein, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 527–556.Google Scholar
  107. Rabinowitz, P. D., and LaBrecque, J. L., 1979, The Mesozoic South Atlantic Ocean and evolution of its continental margins, J. Geophys. Res. 84:5973–6002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ritchie, J. M., 1987, Trace fossils of burrowing Hymenoptera from Laetoli, in: Laetoli, A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 433–438.Google Scholar
  109. Roberts, N., 1990, Ups and downs of African lakes, Nature 346:107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Roberts, N., Taieb, M., Barker, P., Damnati, B., Icole, M., and Williamson, D., 1993, Timing of the Younger Dryas event in East Africa from lake-level changes, Nature 366:146–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sabatier, M., 1982, Les rongeurs du site Pliocène à hominidés de Hadar (Éthiopie), Palaeovertebrata 12:1–56.Google Scholar
  112. Sands, W. A., 1987, Ichnocoenoses of probable termite origin from Laetoli, in: Laetoli, A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania (M. D. Leakey and J. M. Harris, eds.), Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 409–433.Google Scholar
  113. Savage, R. J. G., 1978, Carnivora, in: Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio and H. B. S. Cooke, eds.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 249–267.Google Scholar
  114. Schwartz, H. L., 1983, Paleoecology of Late Cenozoic Fish from the Turkana Basin, Northern Kenya, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz.Google Scholar
  115. Shuey, R. T., Frank, H. B., Eck, G. G., and Howell, F. C., 1978, A statistical approach to temporal biostratigraphy, in: Geological Background to Fossil Man (W. W. Bishop, ed.), Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh, pp. 103–124.Google Scholar
  116. Simpson, G. G., 1960, Notes on the measurement of faunal resemblance, Am. J. Sci. 258:300–311.Google Scholar
  117. Smart, C., 1976, The Lothagam I fauna: Its phylogenetic, ecological and biogeographic significance, in: Earliest Man and Environments in the Lake Rudolf Basin (Y. Coppens, F. C. Howell, G. L. Isaac, and R. E. Leakey, eds.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 361–369.Google Scholar
  118. Stanley, H. M., 1878, Through the Dark Continent, Sampson Low, Marston, London.Google Scholar
  119. Stewart, K. M., 1990, Fossil fish from the Upper Semliki, in: Evolution of Environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley (N. T. Boaz, ed.), Virginia Museum of Natural History, Memoir No. 1, Martinsville, pp. 141–162.Google Scholar
  120. Stewart, K. M., 1994, A late Miocene fish fauna from Lothagam, Kenya, J. Vert. Paleontol. 14:592–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tchernov, E., 1986, Evolution of the crocodiles in East and North Africa, Cah. Paléontol. Trav. Paléontol. Est-afr., CNRS, Paris, pp. 1–65.Google Scholar
  122. Tessier, F., 1959, La laténte du Cap Manuel à Dakar et ses termitières fossiles, C. R. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 248:3320–3322.Google Scholar
  123. Thomas, H., 1980, Les bovidés du Miocène supérieur des couches de Mpesida de la formation de Lukeino (district de Baringo, Kenya), in: Proceedings of the 8th Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies (Nairobi, 1977), (R. E. Leakey and B. A. Ogot, eds.), Nairobi, pp. 82–91.Google Scholar
  124. Thomas, H., 1981, Les Bovidés miocènes de la formation de Ngorora du Bassin de Baringo (Rift Valley, Kenya). IV. Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet, B 84:393–410.Google Scholar
  125. Thomson, K. S., 1966, Quaternary fish fossils from the west of Lake Rudolf, Kenya, Breviora, 243:1–10.Google Scholar
  126. Van Couvering, J. A. H., 1977, Early records of freshwater fishes in Africa, Copeia 1:163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Couvering, J. A. H., 1982, Fossil cichlid fish of Africa, Special Papers Paleontol. Assoc. 29:1–103.Google Scholar
  128. Van Neer, W., 1992, New late Tertiary fish fossils from the Singida Region, Eastern Zaire, Afr. Stud. Monogr., Supp. 17:27–47.Google Scholar
  129. Van Neer, W., 1994, Cenozoic fish fossils from the Albertine Rift Valley in Uganda, in: Geology and Paleobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. II: Paleobiology (B. Senut and M. Pickford, eds.), CIFEG Occasional Papers 29, CIFEG, Orléans, pp. 89–127.Google Scholar
  130. Vrba, E. S., 1979, Phylogenetic analysis and classification of fossil and recent Alcelaphini Mammalia: Bovidae, Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 11:207–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Walter, R. C., and Aronson, J. L., 1993, Age and source of the Sidi Hakoma Tuff, Hadar Formation, Ethiopia, J. Hum. Evol. 25:229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Ward, S., and Hill, A., 1987, Pliocene hominid partial mandible from Tabarin, Baringo, Kenya, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 72:21–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. White, E. I., 1926, Fossil pisces, Occ. Pap. Geol. Surv. Uganda 2:45–51.Google Scholar
  134. White, T. D., Moore, R. V., and Suwa, G., 1984, Hadar biostratigraphy and hominid evolution, J. Vert. Paleontol. 4:575–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Williams, G. J., and Eades, N. W., 1939, Explanation of the geology of Degree Sheet No. 18 (Shinyanga), Bull. Geol. Survey Tanganyika 13:1–21.Google Scholar
  136. WoldeGabriel, G., White, T. D., Suwa, G., Renne, P., de Heinzelin, J., Hart, W. K., and Heiken, G., 1994, Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominids at Aramis, Ethiopia, Nature 371:330–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry Harrison
    • 1
  • Eric Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, Paleoanthropology LaboratoryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations