Jehovah, His Cousin Allah, and Sexual Mutilations

  • Sami A. Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh
Chapter

Abstract

Female sexual mutilation is practiced in about twenty-eight countries. Many of these countries are Arab or Muslim. Among those practicing female sexual mutilation under religious pretext, we must mention here Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea and Egypt. In Egypt, about 3,600 girls are excised daily.1 Other Arab and Muslim countries do not practice female sexual mutilation, such as several North African Countries, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia (with some exceptions) and Iran.

Keywords

Male Circumcision Female Genital Mutilation Female Circumcision Labium Minora Muslim Scholar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Al-Gumhuriyyah, as quoted by Al-Nahar, August 31, 1996: 24.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Sukkari, `Abd-al-Salam `Abd-al-Rahim: Khitan al-dhakar wa-khifad al-untha min manzur islami. Heliopolis: Dar al-manar, 1988: 65–67.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 87–89.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 86 and 90–95.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 78–81.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Genesis 17: 1–14.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ezekiel 44:9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Isaiah 52:1.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jeremiah 4:4.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deuteronomy 19:21.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deuteronomy 22:24.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    St. Matthew 5:38–39.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    St. John 8:3–11.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    St. Luke 2:21.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    John 7:21–24.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    See Acts of the Apostles Chapters 10, 1 1 and 15.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Acts of the Apostles 15:1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Acts of the Apostles 10:9.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Corinthians 7: 18–20.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collosians 3:10–11.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tafsir al-Qur’an al-karim (Tafsir al-manar). 2nd ed., Beirut: Dar al-ma’rifah, 1980;1:373–4.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shaltut, Mahmud: Al-fatawi. 10th ed. Cairo and Beirut: Dar al-shuruq, 1980: 332.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    EI-Saadawi, Nawal. The hidden face of Eve, Women in the Arab World. translated and edited by Sherif Hetata. London: Zed Press, 1980: 42.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rapport sur les pratiques traditionnelles, Addis Ababa, 1987:83.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Exodus 12:7–13.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Al-Mandawi Mustafa Kamal: Al-Bayan bil-Qur’an, Al-dar al-gamahiriyyah, Misratah and Dar al-afaq algadidah, Casablanca, 1990: 1: 348–50.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Quoted by Gad-al-Haq, Gad-al-Haq `Ali: Khitan al-banat, in Al-fatawi al-islamiyyah min dar al-ifta’ almasriyyah, Wazarat al-awqaf, Cairo. 1983;9:3121. and by Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 83–84.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Al-Gamri, ‘Abd-al-Amir Mansur: Al-mar’ah fi zil al-islam. 4th ed. Beirut: Dar al-hilal, 1986:170-I.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Quoted by Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., p. 59.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Al-Gamri: Al-mar’ah fi zil al-islam, op. cit., pp. 170–171.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Quoted by Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., p. 50.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Quoted by ‘Abd-al-Raziq, Abu-Bakr: Al-khitan, ra’y al-din wal-’ilm fi khitan al-awlad wal-banat. Cairo: Dar Al-i’tissam, 1989: 71.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Quoted by Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., p. 55.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 55–56.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Quoted by Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., p. 51.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Al-Tubrussi: Makarim al-akhlaq. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-A’lami, 1994: 220.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ibn `Abd Al-Hakim: The history of the conquest of Egypt, North Africa and Spain, known as the Futuh Misr, ed. by Charles C. Torrey. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1922:11–12.Google Scholar
  38. Al-Tabari: Tarikh Al-Tabari, 3rd ed. Beirut: lz-ad-Din, 1992; 1: 130.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 103–107.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Shaltut, Mahmud: Al-fatawi. 10th ed. Cairo and Beirut: Dar al-shuruq, 1980: 331.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Ibn-Qudamah: Al-Mughni. Riyad: Maktabat al-Riyad al-hadithah, 1981; 1: 85.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Al-Asbahani: Kitab dala’il al-nubuwwah. Riyad: `Alam al-kutub, 1988: 99–105.Google Scholar
  43. Al-Sukkari: Khi-tan, op. cit., pp. 67–68.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Al-Nimr, Abd-al-Mun’im: ‘Ilm al-tafsir. Cairo and Beirut: Dar al-kitab al-Masri, Dar al-kutub al-islamiyyah and Dar al-kitab al-lubnani, 1985: 159–60.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    The Gospel of Barnabas. Edited and translated by Lonsdale and Laura Ragg. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907. reprint Chapter 22 in: Lahore: Al-Kitab, 1981: 45.Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    The Gospel of Barnabas, op. cit., chap. 23, pp. 47–49.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Abd-al-Raziq: A1-khitan, op. cit., p. 16.Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Saadah, Khaleel: Mugaddimat Ingil Barnaba. Cairo: Magallat al-Manar, 1908: introduction, page “j.”Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    See the foreword written by Qazi Muhammad Hafizullah to the reprinted English edition of the Gospel of Barnabas, op. cit.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 46, 62–63.Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Al-Birri, Zakariyya: Ma hukm khitan al-hint wa-hal huwa daruri, in `Abd-al-Raziq: Al-Khitan, op. cit., pp. 95–96.Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Al-Qaradawi, Youssef: Huda al-islam, fatawi mu’assirah. 3rd ed. Kuwait: Dar al-qalam, 1987: 443.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Makhluf, Hassanayn Muhammad: Hukm al-khitan, in: Al-fatawi al-islamiyyah min dar al-ifta’ al-masriyyah. Cairo: Wazarat al-awqaf, 1981; 2: 449.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Nassar, `Allam: Khitan al-banat, in Al-fatawi al-islamiyyah min dar al-ifta’ al-masriyyah. Cairo: Wazarat al-awqaf, 1982;6:1986.Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Gad-al-Haq: Khitan al-banat, op. cit., pp. 3119–3125.Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Gad-al-Haq, `Ali Gad-al-Haq: Al-khitan, annex to the periodical Al-Azhar, October 1994.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Al-Ahram, October 9, 1994: 8.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 75–77.Google Scholar
  59. 57.
    Gad-al-Haq: Khitan al-banat, op. cit., p. 3120.Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 73–75.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 75–77.Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    Amin, Ahmad: Qamus al-`adat wal-taqalid wal-ta’abir al-masriyyah. Cairo: Maktabat al-nandah al-masriyyah, 1992: 187.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    See the two Saudi fatwas in Magallat al-buhuth al-islamiyyah, Riyad: 1987;(20):161. and 1989;(25):62.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Zenie Ziegler, Wedad: La face voilée des femmes d’Egypte„ Paris: Mercure de France, 1985: 66–7.Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    El-Masry, Youssef: Le drame sexuel de la femme dans l’Orient arabe, Paris: Laffont, 1962: 3.Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Al-Fangari, Ahmad Shawqi: Al-tib al-wiqa’i fil-islam. Cairo: Al-hay’ah al-masriyyah al-`ammah lil-kitab, 1980: 143.Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    See these arguments in Bigelow, Jim: The Joy of Uncircumcising, Aptos: Hourglass, 1992: 29–45.Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Shaltut: Al-fatawi, op. cit., pp. 333–334.Google Scholar
  69. 67.
    Al-Ghawabi, Hamid: Khitan al-banat bayn al-tib wal-islam, in ‘Abd-al-Raziq: Al-Khitan, op. cit., p. 57.Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Al-Salih, Muhammad Ibn-Ahmad: Al-tifil fil-shari’ah al-islamiyyah. Cairo: Matba’at nandat Masr. 1980: 85.Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Al-Ghawabi: Khitan, op. cit., p. 62.Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Al-Ghawabi: Khitan, op. cit., p. 51.Google Scholar
  73. 71.
    Al-Ghawabi: Khitan, op. cit., p. 57.Google Scholar
  74. 72.
    Gad-al-Haq: Khitan al-banat, op. cit., p. 3124.Google Scholar
  75. 73.
    Mahran, Maher: Les risques médicaux de l’excision (circoncision médicale), reprint of a paper published in Bulletin Médical de l’IPPF 1981; 15 (2): 1–2.Google Scholar
  76. 74.
    For more about those complications, see Rapport sur les pratiques traditionnelles, Addis Ababa: 1990:56–7.Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., p. 106.Google Scholar
  78. 76.
    For the link between drugs and female circumcision, see Amin: Qamus al-`adat, op. cit. p. 188; Al-Hadidi, Muhammad Sa’ id: Khitan al-awlad bayn al-tib wal-islam, in `Abd-al-Raziq: Al-khitan, op. cit., pp. 67–70.Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    El-Masry: Le drame sexuel, op. cit., pp. 56–69.Google Scholar
  80. 78.
    El-Masry: Le drame sexuel, op. cit., pp. 61–62.Google Scholar
  81. 79.
    Al-Hadidi: Khitan al-awlad, op. cit., pp. 67–70.Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    EI-Saadawi: The hidden, op. cit., p. 38.Google Scholar
  83. 81.
    El-Saadawi• The hidden, op. cit., p. 33.Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    EI-Saadawi: The hidden, op. cit., pp. 40–41.Google Scholar
  85. 83.
    Ibn-Taymiyyah: Fatawi al-nissa.’ Beirut: Dar al-qalam, 1987:17.Google Scholar
  86. 84.
    Al-Qarrafi: Al-dhakhirah. Beirut: Dar al-gharb al-islami, 1994; 13: 278–9.Google Scholar
  87. 85.
    Hamrush, Ibrahim: Khitan al-banat, in `Abd-al-Raziq: Al-khitan, op. cit., p. 75.Google Scholar
  88. 86.
    Nassar: Khitan al-banat, op. cit., p. 1986.Google Scholar
  89. 87.
    Al-Sukkari: Khitan, op. cit., pp. 33–37, 39–40.Google Scholar
  90. 88.
    Shaltut: Al-fatawi, op. cit., pp. 333–334.Google Scholar
  91. 89.
    Shaltut: Khitan al-banat, op. cit.. pp. 89–90.Google Scholar
  92. 90.
    Abd-al-Wahid, Nigm `Abd-Allah: Nazrat al-islam hawl tabi’at al-gins wal-tanassul. Kuwait: Matabi’ almanar, 1986: 109–16.Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    Unabridged Arab text on the issue in Report on Traditional Practices, Dakar: 1984:247–250; basic French translation, pp. 72–73.Google Scholar
  94. 92.
    Text in Al-Sabbagh, Muhammad Ibn-Lutfi: Al-hukm al-shar’i fi khitan al-dhukur wal-inath. Alexandria: Munazzamat al-sihhah al-`alamiyyah, 1995: 26–34.Google Scholar
  95. 93.
    Report of the United Nations Seminar related to Traditional Practices affecting the Health of Women and Children, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, April 29-May 3, 1991, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1991/48, Jun. 12, 1991: 9.Google Scholar
  96. 94.
    Magmu’at al-qawa’id al-qanuniyyah 1931–1955, Penal Division, March 28, 1938 Session, vol. 2, p. 824.Google Scholar
  97. 95.
    Qararat Mahkamat al-naqd, Penal Division, March 11, 1974 Session, Judicial Year 25, p. 263.Google Scholar
  98. 96.
    WHO, 12th World Health Assembly, 11th Plenary Meeting, May 28, 1959.Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    Rapport sur les pratiques traditionnelles, Dakar, 1984, p. 67.Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    Ibid., p. 71.Google Scholar
  101. 99.
    WHO, Resolution of the Regional Committee for Africa, Thirty-ninth session, AFR/RC39/R9, Sep. 13, 1989.Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    Report on Traditional Practices, Addis Ababa, p. 77.Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    Ibid., pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  104. 102.
    Arabic text in: Al-halqah al-dirassiyyah `an al-intihak al-badani li-sighar al-inath, Cairo: 1979: 54–6.Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    Time magazine, September 26, 1994, p. 65; Middle East Times, September 18–24, 1994:1, 16 passim.Google Scholar
  106. 104.
    Equality now, Women’s action 8.1, March 1995; Akhbar al-Yom, October 29, 1994: 13.Google Scholar
  107. 105.
    See on this philosopher. Encyclopédie de l’Islam, new edition, Leiden: Brill. 1995; 8: 490–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sami A. Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations