Investigating Alternative Accounts of Veridical and Non-Veridical Memories of Trauma

  • Jonathan W. Schooler
  • Ira E. HymanJr.
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 291)


We summarize the discussions of the two Cognitive Working Groups of the NATO ASI meeting on memory and trauma. The groups found that an understanding of the processes that contribute to veridical and nonveridical memories of trauma will require clarification of the relationship between clinical and cognitive constructs, and a variety of research approaches. The groups concluded that advancement will require greater communication and collaboration among researchers interested in memory of trauma


Ptsd Symptom Traumatic Experience False Memory Autobiographical Memory Implicit Memory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, R.C., Pitcher, J.W. (1978). Recall of previously unrecallable information following a shift in perspective. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 1–12.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, M.C., Bjork, R.A., Bjork, E.I. (1994). Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. 20 (5), 1063–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R.C., Herrmann, D.J. Westcourt, K.T. (1974) Search processes in recognition memory. In R.L. Solso (Ed.) Theories in cognitive psychology: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 101–146 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, R. C., Shiffrin, R. M. (1969). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. Spence J. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation ((Vol. 2 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R., Kulik, J. (1977). Flashbulb memories. Cognition, 5, 73–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjork, R.A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H.L. Roediger., F.I.M. Craik. (Eds). Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honor of Endel Tulving. (pp. 309–330 ). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ebbinghaus, H. ( 1913 (1885). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. New York: Columbia Teacher’s College.Google Scholar
  9. Eich, J.E. (1980) The cue dependent nature of state dependent retrieval Memory and Cognition, 8, 157–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Erdelyi, M.H., Kleinbard, J. (1978). Has Ebbinghaus decayed with time ? The growth of recall (hypermnesia) over days. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freud, S. (1901/1974). Childhood memories and screen memories. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 6, pp. 43–52) London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  12. Freud, S. (1915/1957). Repression. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 14 pp.141–158). London, Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hilgard, E.R. (1992) Dissociation and theories of hypnosis. In Fromm, E. Nash, M.R. Contemporary Hypnosis Research N.Y., N.Y.: Guilford PressGoogle Scholar
  14. Horowitz, M. J., Reidboard, S. P. (1992). Memory, emotion, and response to trauma. In S. Christianson (Ed.), The Handbook of Emotion and Memory: Research and Theory (pp. 343–357 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Hyman, I. E., Jr., Husband, T. H., Billings, J. F. (1995). False memories of childhood experiences. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hyman, I. E., Jr., Pentland, J. (1996). Guided imagery and the creation of false childhood memories. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J. W. Schooler and I. E. Hyman, Jr. Janet, P. (1889). L’automatisme continue. Revue génerale des sciences, 4, 167–179Google Scholar
  18. Jacoby, L.L., Dallas, M. (1981) On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 3, 306–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacoby, L.L., Kelley, C.M., Dywan, J. Memory Attributions. in H.L. Roediger and F.I.M. Craik (Eds) Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honor of Endel Tulving. (pp. 391–422)Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3–28.Google Scholar
  20. Loftus, E. F., Pickrell, J. E. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720–725.Google Scholar
  21. Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: The judgment of a previous occurrence. Psychological Review, 87, 252–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neisser, U. (1982). Memory observed: Remembering in natural context. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  23. Neisser, U. Harsch, N. (1992). Phantom flashbulbs: False recollections of hearing the news about Challenger. In E. Winograd U. Neisser (Eds.), Affect and accuracy in recall: Studies of ‘flashbulb memories“ (pp. 9–31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Nelson, K. (1993). The psychological and social origins of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 4, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Roediger, H.L. (1990). Remembering reconsidered: Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory. American Journal of Psychology. 103 (3), pp. 403–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roediger, H.L., Weldon, M.S., Challis, B.H. (1989) Explaining dissociations between implicit and explicit measures of retention: A processing account. In Roediger, H.L., Craik, F.I.M. (Eds) Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honor of Endel Tulving. (pp. 1–41 ). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Schacter. D. (1987). Implicit Memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 13 (3), 510–518.Google Scholar
  29. Schacter, D., Chiu, C.Y.P., Ohcsner, K.N. (1993). Implicit memory: A selective review. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 16, 159–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singer, J.L (1993) Experimental studies of ongoing conscious experience. In Bock, G.R Marsh, J (Eds) Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness, N.Y., N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  31. Ten, L. C., Bloch, D. A., Michel, B. A., Shi, H., Reinhardt, J. A., Metayer, S. (1996). Children’s memories in the wake of Challenger. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 618–625.Google Scholar
  32. Tromp, S., Koss, M.P., Figueredo, A.J. Tharan, M. (1995). Are rape memories different? A comparison of rape, other unpleasant, and pleasant memories among employed women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 607–628.Google Scholar
  33. Tulving, E., Thompson, D. M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 80, 352–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. van der Kolk, B.A., Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. van der Kolk, B.A., van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago, 48, 425–454.Google Scholar
  36. Wegner, D. (1994) Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101, 34–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Winograd, E. Neisser, U. (1992), Affect and accuracy in recall: Studies of ‘flashbulb memories.“ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan W. Schooler
    • 1
  • Ira E. HymanJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Western Washington UniversityBellinghamUSA

Personalised recommendations