Dietary Fat, Genes, and Human Health

  • Donald B. Jump
  • Steven D. Clarke
  • Annette Thelen
  • Marya Liimatta
  • Bing Ren
  • Maria V. Badin
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 422)

Abstract

Dietary fat is an essential macronutrient in the diet of all animals. It provides a source of energy and hydrophobic components for biomolecule synthesis. Fatty acids also are used for the synthesis of signaling molecules like steroids and prostanoids as well as being covalently linked to specific proteins.1,2 In addition to these well established roles, recent studies indicate that fatty acids have pronounced effects on gene expression leading to changes in metabolism, cell growth and differentiation.3–22 While many of these effects are beneficial to human health, dietary fat appears to become a problem when humans or animals ingest high fat diets and/or diets that are disproportionately enriched in saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Numerous epidemiologic, clinical and animal studies have studied the link of dietary fat to the onset and progression of chronic diseases like breast, colon and prostate cancer, coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, hypertension and obesity.23–40 How these diets contribute to disease is unclear. In our view, the recent advances defining the cellular and molecular basis of dietary fat action are likely to provide important clues to explain how fats alter cell function and lead to chronic disease. In this presentation, we will first briefly discuss the diverse effects of fatty acids on cell function and then focus on dietary fat regulation of gene transcription.

Keywords

Peroxisome Proliferator Activate Receptor Proximal Promoter Region Upstream Stimulatory Factor Preinitiation Complex Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald B. Jump
    • 1
  • Steven D. Clarke
    • 2
  • Annette Thelen
    • 1
  • Marya Liimatta
    • 1
  • Bing Ren
    • 1
  • Maria V. Badin
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and BiochemistryMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nutritional Sciences Department of Human EcologyUniversity of Texas-AustinAustinUSA

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