Carbohydrate/Emulsifier Interactions

  • Lynn B. Deffenbaugh


Many different types of emulsifiers are used in food products. The inclusion rate is usually low, < 3%. Composition and characteristics of emulsifiers used in foods are discussed in other chapters. Emulsifiers often function indirectly in foods by modifying the properties of major components such as carbohydrates, protein, or fat. This chapter discusses the impact of emulsifiers on carbohydrates.


Electron Spin Resonance Inclusion Complex Starch Granule Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Wheat Starch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Banks, W., Greenwood, C.T. (1975). Starch and Its Components, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  2. Batres, L.V., White, P.J. (1986). Interaction of amylopectin with monoglycerides in model systems, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc, 63, 1537–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biliaderis, C.G., Galloway, G. (1989). Crystallization behavior of amylose-V complexes: structure-property relationships, Carbohydrate Res, 189, 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biliaderis, C.G. et al. (1986). Thermal characterization of rice starches: a polymeric approach to phase transitions of granular starch, J. Agric. Food Chem, 34, 6–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourne, E.J., et al. (1960). Interaction of starch with sucrose stearates and other anti-staling agents, J. Sci. Food Agric, 11, 101–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bulpin, PV., et al. (1982). Physical characterization of amylose-fatty acid complexes in starch granules and in solution, Starke, 34, 335–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlson, T.L.-G., et al. (1979). A study of the amylose-monoglyceride complex by Raman spectroscopy, Starke, 31, 222–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conde-Petit, B., Escher, F. (1994). Influence of starch-lipid complexation on the ageing behavior of high concentration starch gels, Starke, 46 (5), 172–7.Google Scholar
  9. Conde-Petit, B., Escher, F. (1992). Gelatin of low concentration starch systems induced by starch emulsifier complexation, Food Hydrocolloids, 6 (2), 223–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deffenbaugh, L.B. (1990a). Characterization of the Interactions between a Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester Emulsifier and Starches. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.Google Scholar
  11. Deffenbaugh, L.B., Walker, C.E. (1990b). Use of the rapid visco analyzer to measure starch pasting properties. Part II: Effect of emulsifiers and sugar-emulsifier interactions. Starke, 42 (3) 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donovan, J.W. (1979). Phase transitions of the starch-water system, Biopolymers, 18, 263–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ebeler, S.E., Walker, C.E. (1984). Effects of various sucrose fatty acid ester emulsifiers on high-ratio white layer cakes, J. Food Sci, 49, 380–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eliasson, A.-C. (1983). Differential scanning calorimetry studies on wheat starch-gluten mixtures. II. Effect of gluten and sodium stearoyl lactylate on starch crystallization during aging of wheat starch gels, J. Cereal Science, 1, 207–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eliasson, A.-C. (1985). Starch gelatinization in the presence of emulsifiers, Starke, 37, 411–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eliasson, A.-C. (1986a). On the effects of surface active agents on the gelatinization of starcha calorimetric investigation, Carbohydrate Polymers, 6, 463–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eliasson, A.-C. (1986b). Viscoelastic behavior during the gelatinization of starch. II. Effects of emulsifiers, J. Texture Studies, 17, 357–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eliasson, A.-C. (1988). On the thermal transitions of the amylase-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide complex, Carbohydrate Res, 172, 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eliasson, A.-C., Krog, N. (1985). Physical properties of amylose-monoglyceride complexes. J. Cereal Science, 3, 23–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eliasson, A.-C., Ljunger, G. (1988). Interactions between amylopectin and lipid additives during retrogradation in a model system, J. Sci. Food Agric, 44, 353–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eliasson, A.-C., Ljunger, G. (1988). A study of starch-lipid interactions for some native and modified maize starches, Starke, 40, 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, I.D. (1986). An investigation of starch/surfactant interactions using viscosimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, Starke, 38, 227–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Favor, H.H., Johnston, N.F. (1947). Effect of polyoxyethylene stearate on the crumb softness of bread, Cereal Chem, 24, 346–55.Google Scholar
  24. French, A.D., Murphy, V.G. (1977). Computer modelling in the study of starch, Cereal Foods World, 22, 61–70.Google Scholar
  25. Ghiasi, K., et al. (1982a). Gelatinization of wheat starch. 1. Excess-water systems, Cereal Chem, 59, 81–5.Google Scholar
  26. Ghiasi, K., (1982b). Gelatinization of wheat starch. III. Comparison by differential scanning calorimetry and light microscopy, Cereal Chem, 59, 258–62.Google Scholar
  27. Ghiasi, K., et al. (1982c). Gelatinization of wheat starch. II. Starch-surfactant interaction, Cereal Chem, 59, 86–8.Google Scholar
  28. Ghiasi, K., (1982d). Gelatinization of wheat starch. IV. Amylograph viscosity, Cereal Chem, 59, 262–5.Google Scholar
  29. Gray, V.M., Schoch, T.J. (1962). Effects of surfactants and fatty adjuncts on the swelling and solubilization of granular starches, Starke, 14, 239–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gudmundsson, M., Eliasson, A.-C. (1990). Retrogradation of amylopectin and the effects of amylose and added surfactants/emulsifiers, Carbohydrate Polymers, 13, 295–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hahn, D.E., Hood, L.F. (1987). Factors influencing corn starch-lipid complexing, Cereal Chem, 64, 81–5.Google Scholar
  32. Hahnel, W., et al. (1995). Investigations into the properties of emulsifiers in yeast-leavened dough by means of infrared spectroscopy. II. Experiments on the interaction of emulsifiers with starch and flour and in dough, Z. Lebensm-Unters-Forsch, 200, 244 46.Google Scholar
  33. Hanna, T.G., Lelievre, J. (1975). An effect of lipid on the enzymatic degradation of wheat starch, Cereal Chem, 52 (5) 697–701.Google Scholar
  34. Holm, J., et al. (1983). Digestibility of amylose-lipid complexes in-vitro and in-vivo, Starke, 35, 294–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoover, R., Hadziyev, D. (1981). Characterization of potato starch and its monoglyceride complexes, Starke, 33, 290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jane, J.-L., Robyt, J.F. (1984). Structure studies of amylose-V complexes and retrograded amylose by action of alpha amylases, and a new method for preparing amylodextrins, Carbohydrate Res, 132, 105–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jane, J.-L., Robyt, J.F. et al, Huang, D.-H. (1985). 13C-N.M.R. study of the conformation of helical complexes of amylodextrin and of amylose in solution, Carbohydrate Res, 140, 21–35.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, J.M., et al. (1990). Lipid binding of modified corn starches studied by electron spin resonance, Cereal Chem, 67, 236–40.Google Scholar
  39. Karkalas, J., Raphaelides, S. (1986). Quantitative aspects of amylose-lipid interactions, Carbohydrate Res, 157, 215–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim, C.S., Walker, C.E. (1992b). Effects of sugars and emulsifiers on starch gelatinization evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, Cereal Chem, 69 (2), 212–17.Google Scholar
  41. Kim, C.S., Walker, C.E. (1992c). Changes in starch pasting properties due to sugars and emulsifiers as determined by viscosity measurements, J. Food Science, 57 (4), 1009–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kim, H.-0., Hill, R.D. (1985). Effect of cycloheptaamylose on starch-lipid interactions, in New Approaches to Research on Cereal Carbohydrates (eds. R.D. Hill and L. Munck ), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 81–8.Google Scholar
  43. Kim, Y.J., Robinson, R.J. (1979). Effect of surfactants on starch in a model system, Starke, 31, 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krog, N. (1971). Amylose complexing effect of food grade emulsifiers, Starke, 23, 206–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krog, N. (1973). Influence of food emulsifiers on pasting temperature and viscosity of various starches, Starke, 25, 22–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Krog, N. (1981). Theoretical aspects of surfactants in relation to their use in breadmaking, Cereal Chem, 58, 158–64.Google Scholar
  47. Krog, N., Nybo-Jensen, B. (1970). Interaction of monoglycerides in different physical states with amylose and their anti-firming effects in bread, J. Food Tech, 5, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kugimiya, M., Donovan, J.W. (1981). Calorimetric determination of the amylose content of starches based on formation of the amylose-lysolecithin complex, J. Food Sci, 46, 765–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Donovan, J.W., Wong, R.Y. (1980). Phase transitions of amylose-lipid complexes in starches: a calorimetric study, Starke, 32, 265–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lagendijk, J., Pennings, H.J. (1970). Relation between complex formation of starch with monoglycerides and the firmness of bread, Cereal Science Today, 15, 354–65.Google Scholar
  51. Larsson, K. (1980). Inhibition of starch gelatinization by amylose-lipid complex formation, Starke, 32, 125–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lin, S., et al. (1990). Effects of pH, sodium chloride, polysaccharides, and surfactants on the pasting characteristics of pea flours (Pisum sativum), Cereal Chem, 67, 14–9.Google Scholar
  53. Lund, D. (1984). Influence of time, temperature, moisture, ingredients, and processing conditions on starch gelatinization, CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 20 (4), 249–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maier, H.G., et al. (1987). Thermostable binding of aroma compounds to starch. Part 1: Binding by freeze-drying, Starke, 39, 126–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Matsunaga, A., Kainuma, K. (1986). Studies on the retrogradation of starch in starchy foods. Part 3. Effect of the addition of sucrose fatty acid ester on the retrogradation of corn starch, Starke, 38, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mercier, C., et al. (1980). Formation of amylose-lipid complexes by twin-screw extrusion cooking of manioc starch, Cereal Chem, 57, 4–9.Google Scholar
  57. Mikus, F.F., et al. (1946). The complexes of fatty acids with amylose, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 68, 1115–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miles, M. J., et al. (1985). The roles of amylose and amylopectin in the gelation and retrogradation of starch, Carbohydrate Res, 135, 271–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mitchell, W.A., Zillman, E. (1951). The effect of fatty acids on starch and flour viscosity, Trans. Amer. Assoc. Cereal Chem, 9, 64–79.Google Scholar
  60. Miura, M., et al. (1992). Influence of addition of polyols and food emulsifiers on the retrogradation rate of starch, Food Structure, 11, 225–36.Google Scholar
  61. Moorthy, S.N. (1985). Effect of different types of surfactants on cassava starch properties, J. Agri. Food Chem, 33, 1227–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Neszmelyi, A., et al. (1987). Bimolecular modeling: an interactive program for the visualization and modeling of carbohydrate (starch and oligosaccharide) complexes in solution, Starke, 39, 393–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nolan, N.L., et al. (1986). An electron spin resonance study of native and gelatinized starch systems, Cereal Chem, 63, 287–91.Google Scholar
  64. Olkku, T., Rha, C. (1978). Gelatinization of starch and wheat flour-a review, Food Chem, 3, 293–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Osman, E.M. (1967). Starch in the food industry, in Starch: Chemistry and Technology. Vol. 2 (eds. R. L. Whistler and E. F. Paschall ), Academic, New York, pp. 163–215.Google Scholar
  66. Dix, M.R. (1960). Effects of fats and nonionic surface-active agents on starch pastes, Cereal Chem, 37, 464–75.Google Scholar
  67. Olkku, T., Rha, C. et al. (1961). Complexes of amylose with surfactants, Cereal Chem, 38, 449–63.Google Scholar
  68. Paton, D., (1987). Differential scanning calorimetry of oat starch pastes, Cereal Chem, 64, 394–9.Google Scholar
  69. Pearce, L.M., et al. (1985). Application of electron spin resonance techniques to model starch systems, Food Microstructure, 4, 83–8.Google Scholar
  70. Pearce, L.M.,(1987a). An electron spin resonance study of stearic acid interactions in model wheat starch and gluten systems, Food Microstructure, 6, 121–6.Google Scholar
  71. Pearce, L.M., (1987b). Stearic acid-starch interactions as measured by electron spin resonance, Cereal Chem, 64, 154–7.Google Scholar
  72. Pomeranz, Y., et al. (1969). Improving breadmaking properties with glycolipids. I. Improving soy products with sucroesters, Cereal Chem, 46, 503–11.Google Scholar
  73. Raphaelides, S., Karkalas, J. (1988). Thermal dissociation of amylose-fatty acid complexes, Carbohydrate Res, 172, 65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rilsom, T., et al. (1984). Amylose complexing capacities of cis-and trans-unsaturated monoglycerides in relation to their functionality in bread, J. Cereal Sci, 2, 105–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ring, S.G. (1985). Some studies on starch gelation, Starke, 37, 80–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roach, R.R., Hoseney, R.C. (1995a). Effect of certain surfactants on the swelling, solubility and amylograph consistency of starch, Cereal Chem, 72 (6), 571–7.Google Scholar
  77. Roach, R.R., Hoseney, R.C. (1995b). Effect of certain surfactants on the starch in bread, Cereal Chem, 72 (6), 578–82.Google Scholar
  78. Rundle, R.E., French, D. (1943a). The configuration of starch and the starch-iodine complex. II. Optical properties of crystalline starch fractions, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 65, 558–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rundle, R.E., French, D. (1943b). The configuration of starch and the starch-iodine complex. III. X-ray diffraction studies of the starch-iodine complex, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 65, 1707–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rutschmann, M.A., Solms, J. (1990). Flavors and off-flavors, in Developments in Food Science, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 991–1010.Google Scholar
  81. Schmidt, E., Maier, H.G. (1987). Thermostable binding of aroma compounds to starch. Part 2: Binding of menthol by autoclaving, Starke, 39, 203–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schoch, T.J., French, D. (1947). Studies on bread staling. I. The role of starch, Cereal Chem, 24, 231–49.Google Scholar
  83. Schoch, T.J., French, D., Williams, C.B. (1944). Adsorption of fatty acid by the linear component of corn starch, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 66, 1232–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Staeger, G., Escher, F., Solms, J. (1988). Formation of starch inclusion compounds during extrusion cooking, in Frontiers of Flavor (ed. G. Charalambous ), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 639–54.Google Scholar
  85. Strandine, E.F., et al. (1951). Effect of monoglycerides on starch, flour, and bread: a microscopic and chemical study, Cereal Chem, 28, 449–62.Google Scholar
  86. Stute, V.R., Konieczny-Janda, G. (1983). DSC investigations of starches. Part II. Investigations on starch-lipid-complexes, Starke, 35, 340–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Szczodrak, J., Pomeranz, Y. (1992). Starch lipid interactions and formation of resistant starch in high-amylose barley, Cereal Chem, 69 (6), 626–32.Google Scholar
  88. Takahashi, S., Seib, P.A. (1988). Paste and gel properties of prime corn and wheat starches with and without native lipids, Cereal Chem, 65, 474–83.Google Scholar
  89. Twillman, T.J., White, P.J. (1988). Influence of monoglycerides on the textural shelf life and dough rheology of corn tortillas, Cereal Chem, 65, 253–7.Google Scholar
  90. Van Lonkhuysen, H., Blankestijn, J. (1974) Interaction of monoglycerides with starches, Starke, 26, 337–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zobel, H.F. (1984). Gelatinization of starch and mechanical properties of starch pastes, in Starch: Chemistry and Technology, 2d ed. ( eds. R.L. Whistler, J.N. BeMiller, and E.F. Pachall ), Academic, Orlando, FL, pp. 285–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynn B. Deffenbaugh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations