Electrophysiological Effects of Dopamine Receptor Stimulation

  • Johan Grenhoff
  • Steven W. Johnson
Part of the The Receptors book series (REC)


The involvement of dopamine in multiple aspects of brain function has produced a great interest in dopaminergic pharmacology, and a large number of dopamine receptor ligands have been developed and tested. Dopamine receptors were initially divided into D1 and D2* subtypes on the basis of pharmacological and biochemical criteria (1). D1 receptors mediate stimulation, and D2 receptors inhibition, of adenylate cyclase by dopamine, and certain compounds interact selectively with the two types of receptor (2). In recent years, molecular cloning studies have demonstrated the presence of at least five genetically different dopamine receptor subtypes in the mammalian nervous system (3, 4). Since the cloned D 1 and D5 receptors are highly homologous and pharmacologically similar, they can be viewed as members of the D1 subfamily. In parallel, the cloned D2, D3, and D4 subtypes belong to the D2 subfamily. The pharmacologically characterized D1 and D2 receptors may involve different members of these two subfamilies. In functional studies, such as those reviewed here, the relative lack of selective compounds necessitates the continued use of the conservative D1/D2 classification, where D1 and D2 refer to the entire subfamily and not the cloned subtype. The only exception is the section on expression systems, where genetically characterized subtypes have been studied in isolation. Still, the expanded knowledge of dopamine receptor structures calls for a re-evaluation of previous concepts and an enhanced understanding of the five (or more) subtypes, which will stimulate the development of even more selective pharmacological tools and clinically useful drugs.


Dopamine Receptor Adenylate Cyclase Chromaffin Cell Calcium Current Striatal Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kebabian, J. W. and Calne, D. B. (1979) Multiple receptors for dopamine. Nature 277, 93–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stoof, J. C. and Kebabian, J. W. (1984) Two dopamine receptors: biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology. Life Sci. 35, 2281–2296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Civelli, O., Bunzow, J. R., and Grandy, D. K. (1993) Molecular diversity of the dopamine receptors. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32, 281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gingrich, J. A. and Caron, M. G. (1993) Recent advances in the molecular biology of dopamine receptors. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 16, 299–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnson, S. W. and North, R. A. (1992) Opioids excite dopamine neurons by hyperpolarization of local interneurons. J. Neurosci. 12, 483–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Madison, D. V. and Nicoll, R. A. (1988) Enkephalin hyperpolarizes interneurones in the rat hippocampus. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 398, 123–130.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    York, D. H. (1979) The neurophysiology of dopamine receptors, in The Neurobiology ofDopamine ( Horn, A. S., Korf, J., and Westerink, B. H. C., eds.), Academic, London, pp. 395–415.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moore, R. Y. and Bloom, F. E. (1978) Central catecholamine neuron systems: anatomy and physiology of the dopamine systems. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 1, 129–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Llinas, R. R. (1988) The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of mammalian neurons: insights into nervous system function. Science 242, 1654–1664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nicoll, R. A. (1982) Neurotransmitters can say more than just “yes” or “no.” Trends Neurosci. 5, 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nicoll, R. A., Malenka, R. C., and Kauer, J. A. (1990) Functional comparison of neurotransmitter receptor subtypes in mammalian central nervous system. Physiol. Rev. 70, 513–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sakmann, B. (1992) Elementary steps in synaptic transmission revealed by currents through single ion channels. Science 256, 503–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lévesque, D., Diaz, J., Pilon, C., Martres, M.-P., Giros, B., Souil, E., et al. (1992) Identification, characterization, and localization of the dopamine D3 receptor in rat brain using 7-(3H)hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 8155–8159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chio, C. L., Lajiness, M. E., and Huff, R. M. (1994) Activation of heterologously expressed D3 dopamine receptors: comparison with D2 dopamine receptors. Mol. Pharmacol. 45, 51–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Vallar, L., Muca, C., Magni, M., Albert, P. Bunzow, J., Meldolesi, J., and Civelli, O. (1990) Differential coupling of dopaminergic D2 receptors expressed in different cell types. J. Biol. Chem. 265 10,320–10,326.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Di Marzo, V., Vial, D., Sokoloff, P., Schwartz, J.-C., and Piomelli, D. (1993) Selection of alternative G.-mediated signaling pathways at the dopamine D2 receptor by protein kinase C. J. Neurosci. 13, 4846–4853.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Seabrook, G. R., Patel, S., Marwood, R., Emms, F., Knowles, M. R., Freedman, S. B., and McAllister, G. (1992) Stable expression of human D3 dopamine receptors in GH4C1 pituitary cells. FEBSLett. 312, 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu, Y. F., Civelli, O., Zhou, Q.-Y., and Albert, P.R. (1992) Cholera toxin-sensitive 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and calcium signals of the human dopamine-DI receptor: selective potentiation by protein kinase A. Mol. Endocrinol. 6, 1815–1824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reuter, H. (1983) Calcium channel modulation by neurotransmitters, enzymes and drugs. Nature 301, 569–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gray, R. and Johnston, D. (1987) Noradrenaline and ß-adrenoceptor agonists increase activity of voltage-dependent calcium channels in hippocampal neurons. Nature 327, 620–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Einhorn, L. C., Falardeau, P. Caron, M., Civelli, O., and Oxford, G. S. (1990) Both isoforms of the D2 dopamine receptor couple to a G protein-activated K` channel when expressed in GH4 cells. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 16 382(Abstract)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Castellano, M. A., Liu, L.-X., Monsma, F. J., Jr., Sibley, D. R., Kapatos, G., and Chiodo, L. A. (1993) Transfected D2 short dopamine receptors inhibit voltage-dependent potassium current in neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid (NG 108–15) cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 44, 649–656.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seabrook, G. R., McAllister, G., Knowles, M. R., Myers, J., Sinclair, H., Patel, S., Freedman, S. B., and Kemp, J. A. (1994) Depression of high-threshold calcium currents by activation of human D2 (short) dopamine receptors expressed in differentiated NG108–15 cells. Br. J. Pharmacol. 111, 1061–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seabrook, G. R., Knowles, M., Brown, N., Myers, J., Sinclair, H., Patel, S., Freedman, S. B., and McAllister, G. (1994) Pharmacology of high-threshold calcium currents in GH4C1 pituitary cells and their regulation by activation of human D2 and D4 dopamine receptors. Br. J. Pharmacol. 112, 728–734.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Freedman, S. B., Patel, S., Marwood, R., Emms, F., Seabrook, G. R., Knowles, M. R., and McAllister, G. (1994) Expression and pharmacological characterization of the human D-3 dopamine receptor. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 268, 417–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seabrook, G. R., Kemp, J. A., Freedman, S. B., Patel, S., Sinclair, H. A., and McAllister, G. (1994) Functional expression of human D3 dopamine receptors in differentiated neuroblastoma x glioma NG108–15 cells. Br. J. Pharmacol. 111, 391–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ascher, P. (1972) Inhibitory and excitatory effects of dopamine on Aplysia neurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 225, 173–209.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ascher, P. and Chesnoy-Marchais, D. (1982) Interactions between three slow potassium responses controlled by three distinct receptors in Aplysïa neurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 324, 67–92.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gruol, D. L. and Weinreich, D. (1979) Two pharmacologically distinct histamine receptors mediating membrane hyperpolarization on identified neurons ofAplysia californica. Brain Res. 162, 281–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sasaki, K. and Sato, M. (1987) A single GTP-binding protein regulates K’-channels coupled with dopamine, histamine and acetylcholine receptors. Nature 325, 259–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lotshaw, D. P. and Levitan, I. B. (1988) Reciprocal modulation of calcium current by serotonin and dopamine in the identified Aplysia neuron R15. Brain Res. 439, 64–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Akopyan, A. R., Chemeris, N. K., and Iljin, V. I. (1985) Neurotransmitter-induced modulation of neuronal Ca current is not mediated by intracellular Ca“ or cAMP. Brain Res. 326, 145–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stoof, J. C., De Vlieger, T. A., and Lodder, J. C. (1984) Opposing roles for D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors in regulating the excitability of growth hormone-producing cells in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 106, 431–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    De Vlieger, T. A., Lodder, J. C., Stoof, J. C., and Werkman, T. R. (1986) Dopamine receptor stimulation induces a potassium dependent hyperpolarizing response in growth hormone producing neuroendocrine cells of the gastropod mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 83C, 429–433.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Werkman, T. R., Lodder, J. C., De Vlieger, T. A., and Stoof, J. C. (1987) Further pharmacological characterization of a D-2-like dopamine receptor on growth hormone producing cells in Lymnaea stagnalis. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 139, 155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bolshakov, V. Y., Gapon, S. A., Katchman, A. N., and Magaznik, L. G. (1993) Activation of a common potassium channel in molluscan neurones by glutamate, dopamine and muscarinic agonist. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 468, 11–33.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Deterre, P., Paupardin-Tritsch, D., Bockaert, J., and Gerschenfeld, H. M. (1982) cAMP-mediated decrease in K+ conductance evoked by serotonin and dopamine in the same neuron: a biochemical and physiological single-cell study. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 7934–7938.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Paupardin-Tritsch, D., Colombaioni, L. Deterre, P., and Gerschenfeld, H. M. (1985) Two different mechanisms of calcium spike modulation by dopamine J. Neurosci. 5 2522–2532.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kandel, E. R. (1985) Cellular mechanisms of learning and the biological basis of individuality, in Principles ofNeural Science, 2nd ed. (Kandel, E. R. and Schwartz, J. H., eds.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 816–833.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Harris-Warrick, R. M., Hammond, C., Paupardin-Tritsch, D., Homburger, V., Rouot, B., Bockaert, J., and Gerschenfeld, H. M. (1988) An a40 subunit of a GTP-binding protein immunologically related to Go mediates a dopamine-induced decrease of Ca“ current in snail neurons. Neuron 1, 27–32.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hille, B. (1994) Modulation of ion-channel function by G-protein-coupled receptors. Trends Neurosci. 17, 531–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rosenthal, W., Hescheler, J., Trautwein, W., and Schultz, G. (1988) Control of voltage-dependent Ca“ channels by G protein-coupled receptors. FASEB J. 2, 2784–2790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ginsborg, B. L., House, C. R., and Silinsky, E. M. (1974) Conductance changes associated with the secretory potential in the cockroach salivary gland. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 236, 723–731.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    House, C. R. and Ginsborg, B. L. (1976) Actions of a dopamine analogue and a neuroleptic at a neuroglandular synapse. Nature 261, 332–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Petersen, O. H. (1992) Stimulus-secretion coupling: cytoplasmic calcium signals and the control of ion channels in exocrine acinar cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 448, 1–51.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ginsborg, B. L., House, C. R., and Mitchell, M. R. (1980) On the role of calcium in the electrical responses of cockroach salivary gland to dopamine. J Physiol. (Lond.) 303, 325–335.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Johnson, B. R. and Harris-Warrick, R. M. (1990) Aminergic modulation of graded synaptic transmission in the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. J. Neurosci. 10, 2066–2076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harris-Warrick, R. M., Coniglio, L. M., Barazangi, N., Guckenheimer, J., and Gueron, S. (1995) Dopamine modulation of transient potassium current evokes phase shifts in a central pattern generator network. J Neurosci. 15, 342–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rogawski, M. A. (1985) The A-current: how ubiquitous a feature of excitable cells is it? Trends Neurosci. 8, 214–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brown, D. A. and Caulfield, M. P. (1979) Hyperpolarizing “a2”-adrenoceptors in rat sympathetic ganglia. Br. J. Pharmacol. 65, 435–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cole, A. E. and Shinnick-Gallagher, P. (1981) Comparison of the receptors mediating the catecholamine hyperpolarization and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential in sympathetic ganglia. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 217, 440–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dun, N. and Nishi, S. (1974) Effects of dopamine on the superior cervical ganglion of the rabbit. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 239, 155–164.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Willems, J. L., Buylaert, W. A., Lefebvre, R. A., and Bogaert, M. G. (1985) Neuronal dopamine receptors on autonomic ganglia and sympathetic nerves and dopamine receptors in the gastrointestinal system. Pharmacol. Rev. 37, 165–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marchetti, C., Carbone, E., and Lux, H. D. (1986) Effects of dopamine and noradrenaline on Ca channels of cultured sensory and sympathetic neurons of chick. Pflugers Arch. 406, 104–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Benot, A. R. and Lopez-Barneo, J. (1990) Feedback inhibition of Caz+ currents by dopamine in glomus cells of the carotid body. Eur. J. Neurosci. 2, 809–812.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bigornia, L., Allen, C. N., Jan, C.-R., Lyon, R. A., Titeler, M., and Schneider, A. S. (1990) Dz dopamine receptors modulate calcium channel currents and catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 252, 586–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sontag, J.-M., Sanderson, P., Klepper, M., Aunis, D., Takeda, K., and Bader, M.-F. (1990) Modulation of secretion by dopamine involves decreases in calcium and nicotinic currents in bovine chromaffin cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 427, 495–517.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Artalejo, C. R., Ariano, M. A., Perlman, R. L., and Fox, A. P. (1990) Activation of facilitation calcium channels in chromaffin cells by D1 dopamine receptors through a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanism. Nature 348, 239–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Twitchell, W. A. and Rane, S. G. (1994) Nucleotide-independent modulation of Caz+-dependent K’ channel current by a µ-type opioid receptor. Mol. Pharmacol. 46, 793–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Inoue, K., Nakazawa, K., Watano, T., Ohara-Imaizumi, M., Fujimori, K., and Takanaka, A. (1992) Dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists enhance ATP-activated currents. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 215, 321–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nakazawa, K., Watano, T., and Inoue, K. (1993) Mechanisms underlying facilitation by dopamine of ATP-activated currents in rat pheochromocytoma cells. Pflugers Arch. 422, 458–464.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Björklund, A. and Lindvall, O. (1984) Dopamine-containing systems in the CNS, in Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 2 (Björklund, A. and Hökfelt, T., eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 55–122.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Einhorn, L. C., Gregerson, K. A., and Oxford, G. S. (1991) D2 dopamine receptor activation of potassium channels in identified rat lactotrophs: whole-cell and single-channel recording. J. Neurosci. 11, 3727–3737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Israel, J. M., Kirk, C., and Vincent, J. D. (1987) Electrophysiological responses to dopamine of rat hypophysial cells in lactotroph-enriched primary cultures. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 390, 1–22.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Einhorn, L. C. and Oxford, G. S. (1993) Guanine nucleotide binding proteins mediate D2 dopamine receptor activation of a potassium channel in rat lactotrophs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 462, 563–578.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lledo, P. M., Homburger, V., Bockaert, J., and Vincent, J.-D. (1992) Differential G protein-mediated coupling of D-2 dopamine receptors to K’ and Cat+ currents in rat anterior pituitary cells. Neuron 8, 455–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lledo, P.-M., Legendre, P., Zhang, J., Israel, J.-M., and Vincent, J.-D. (1990) Effects of dopamine on voltage-dependent potassium currents in identified rat lactotroph cells. Neuroendocrinology 52, 545–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Login, I. S., Pancrazio, J. J., and Kim, Y. I. (1990) Dopamine enhances a voltage-dependent transient K’ current in the MMQ cell, a clonal pituitary line expressing functional D2 dopamine receptors. Brain Res. 506, 331–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lledo, P.-M., Legendre, P., Israel, J.-M., and Vincent, J.-D. (1990) Dopamine inhibits two characterized voltage-dependent calcium currents in identified rat lactotroph cells. Endocrinology 127, 990–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lledo, P.-M., Israel, J.-M., and Vincent, J.-D. (1990) A guanine nucleotide protein mediates the inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium currents by dopamine in rat lactotrophs. Brain Res. 528, 143–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lledo, P.-M., Israel, J. M., and Vincent, J.-D. (1991) Chronic stimulation of D2 dopamine receptors specifically inhibits calcium but not potassium currents in rat lactotrophs. Brain Res. 558, 231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Williams, P. J., MacVicar, B. A., and Pittman, Q. J. (1989) A dopaminergic inhibitory postsynaptic potential mediated by an increased potassium conductance. Neuroscience 31, 673–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Keja, J. A., Stoof, J. C., and Kits, K. S. (1992) Dopamine D2 receptor stimulation differentially affects voltage-activated calcium channels in rat pituitary melanotropic cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 450, 409–435.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Stack, J. and Surprenant, A. (1991) Dopamine actions on calcium currents, potassium currents and hormone release in rat melanotrophs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 439, 37–58.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Williams, P. J., MacVicar, B. A., and Pittman, Q. J. (1990) Synaptic modulation by dopamine of calcium currents in rat pars intermedia. J. Neurosci. 10, 757–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nussinovitch, I. and Kleinhaus, A. L. (1992) Dopamine inhibits voltage-activated calcium channel currents in rat pars intermedia pituitary cells. Brain Res. 574, 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Valentijn, J. A., Louiset, E., Vaudry, H., and Cazin, L. (1991) Dopamine-induced inhibition of action potentials in cultured frog pituitary melanotrophs is mediated through activation of potassium channels and inhibition of calcium and sodium channels. Neuroscience 42, 29–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Valentijn, J. A., Louiset, E., Vaudry, H., and Cazin, L. (1991) Dopamine regulates the electrical activity of frog melanotrophs through a G protein-mediated mechanism. Neuroscience 44, 85–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mudrick-Donnon, L. A., Williams, P. J., Pittman, Q. J., and MacVicar, B. A. (1993) Postsynaptic potentials mediated by GABA and dopamine evoked in stellate glial cells of the pituitary pars intermedia. J. Neurosci. 13 4660–4668.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dowling, J. E. (1991) Retinal neuromodulation: the role of dopamine. Vis. Neurosci. 7, 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McMahon, D. G., Knapp, A. G., and Dowling, J. E. (1989) Horizontal cell gap junctions: single-channel conductance and modulation by dopamine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 7639–7643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    DeVries, S. H. and Schwartz, E. A. (1992) Hemi-gap-junction channels in solitary horizontal cells of the catfish retina. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 445, 201–230.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Harsanyi, K. and Mangel, S. C. (1992) Activation of a D2 receptor increases electrical coupling between retinal horizontal cells by inhibiting dopamine release. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9220–9224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Knapp, A. G., Schmidt, K. F., and Dowling, J. E. (1990) Dopamine modulates the kinetics of ion channels gated by excitatory amino acids in retinal horizontal cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 767–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schmidt, K.-F., Kruse, M., and Hatt, H. (1994) Dopamine alters glutamate receptor desensitization in retinal horizontal cells of the perch (Percafluviatilis). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 8288–8291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dong, C.-J. and Werblin, F. S. (1994) Dopamine modulation of GABAc receptor function in an isolated retinal neuron. J. Neurophysiol. 71, 1258–1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Liu, Y. and Lasater, E. M. (1994) Calcium currents in turtle retinal ganglion cells. II. Dopamine modulation via a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. J. Neurophysiol. 71, 743–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schotland, J., Shupliakov, O., Wikström, M., Brodin, L., Srinivasan, M., You, Z.-B., Herrera-Marschitz, M., Zhang, W., Hökfelt, T., and Griliner, S. (1995) Control of lamprey locomotor neurons by colocalized monoamine transmitters. Nature 374, 266–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pereda, A., Triller, A., Korn, H., and Faber, D. S. (1992) Dopamine enhances both electrotonic coupling and chemical excitatory postsynaptic potentials at mixed synapses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 12,088–12, 092.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yang, C. R., Bourque, C. W., and Renaud, L. P. (1991) Dopamine D2 receptor activation depolarizes rat supraoptic neurones in hypothalamic explants. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 443, 405–419.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Partridge, L. D. and Swandulla, D. (1988) Calcium-activated non-specific cation channels. Trends Neurosci. 11, 69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Aghajanian, G. K. and Bunney, B. S. (1973) Central dopaminergic neurons: neurophysiological identification and responses to drugs, in Frontiers in Catecholamine Research ( Usdin, E. and Snyder, S. H., eds.), Pergamon, New York, pp. 643–648.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    White, F. J. and Wang, R. Y. (1984) Pharmacological characterization of dopamine autoreceptors in the rat ventral tegmental area: microiontophoretic studies. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 231, 275–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Innis, R. B. and Aghajanian, G. K. (1987) Pertussis toxin blocks autoreceptormediated inhibition of dopaminergic neurons in rat substantia nigra. Brain Res. 411, 139–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lacey, M. G., Mercuri, N. B., and North, R. A. (1987) Dopamine acts on D-2 receptors to increase potassium conductance in neurones of the rat substantia nigra zona compacta. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 392, 397–416.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lacey, M. G., Mercuri, N. B., and North, R. A. (1988) On the potassium conductance increase activated by GABA-B and dopamine D-2 receptors in rat substantia nigra neurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 401, 437–453.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Johnson, S. W. and North, R. A. (1992) Two types of neurone in the rat ventral tegmental area and their synaptic inputs. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 450, 455–468.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Roeper, J., Hainsworth, A. H., and Ashcroft, F. M. (1990) Tolbutamide reverses membrane hyperpolarisation induced by activation of D2 receptors and GABAB receptors in isolated substantia nigra neurones. Pflugers Arch. 416, 473–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hicks, G. A. and Henderson, G. (1992) Lack of evidence for coupling of the dopamine D2 receptor to an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (ATP-K’) channel in dopaminergic neurones of the rat substantia nigra. Neurosci. Lett. 141, 213–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lejeune, F. and Millan, M. J. (1995) Activation of dopamine D3 autoreceptors inhibits firing of ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurones in vivo. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 275, R7 R9.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Millan, M. J., Audinot, V., Rivet, J.-M., Gobert, A., Vian, J., Prost, J.-F., Spedding, M., and Peglion, J.-L. (1994) S 14297, a selective ligand at cloned human dopamine D3 receptors, blocks 7-OH-DPAT-induced hypothermia in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 260, R3 — R5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kreiss, D. S., Bergstrom, D. A., Gonzalez, A. M., Huang, K.-X., Sibley, D. R., and Walters, J. R. (1995) Dopamine receptor agonist potencies for inhibition of cell firing correlate with dopamine D3 receptor binding affinities. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 277, 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Colquhoun, D. (1987) Affinity, efficacy, and receptor classification: is the classical theory still useful?, in Perspectives on Receptor Classification ( Black J. W., Jenkinson D. H., and Gerskowitch V. P., eds.), Liss, New York, pp. 103–114.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bowery, B., Rothwell, L. A., and Seabrook, G. R. (1994) Comparison between the pharmacology of dopamine receptors mediating the inhibition of cell firing in rat brain slices through the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. Br. J. Pharmacol. 112, 873–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Liu, L., Shen, R.-Y., Kapatos, G., and Chiodo, L. A. (1994) Dopamine neuron membrane physiology: characterization of the transient outward current (IA) and demonstration of a common signal transduction pathway for IA and IK. Synapse 17, 230–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jiang, Z.-G., Pessia, M., and North, R. A. (1993) Dopamine and baclofen inhibit the hyperpolarization-activated cation current in rat ventral tegmental neurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 462, 753–764.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cameron, D. L. and Williams, J. T. (1993) Dopamine D l receptors facilitate transmitter release. Nature 366, 344–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kitai, S. T., Sugimori, M., and Kocsis, J. D. (1976) Excitatory nature of dopamine in the nigro-caudate pathway. Exp. Brain Res. 24, 351–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bernardi, G., Marciani, M. G., Morocutti, C., Pavone, F., and Stanzione, P. (1978) The action of dopamine on rat caudate neurones intracellularly recorded. Neurosci. Lett. 8, 235–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Herrling, P. L. and Hull, C. D. (1980) Iontophoretically applied dopamine depolarizes and hyperpolarizes the membrane of cat caudate neurons. Brain Res. 192, 441–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Calabresi, P., Mercuri, N., Stanzione, P., Stefani, A., and Bernardi, G. (1987) Intracellular studies on the dopamine-induced firing inhibition of neostriatal neurons in vitro: evidence for D1 receptor involvement. Neuroscience 20, 757–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Calabresi, P., Mercuri, N. B., Sancesario, G., and Bernardi, G. (1993) Electrophysiology of dopamine-denervated striatal neurons. Brain 116, 433–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Calabresi, P., Benedetti, M., Mercuri, N. B., and Bernardi, G. (1988) Endogenous dopamine and dopaminergic agonists modulate synaptic excitation in neostriatum: intracellular studies from naive and catecholamine-depleted rats. Neuroscience 27, 145–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Akaike, A., Ohno, Y., Sasa, M., and Takaori, S. (1987) Excitatory and inhibitory effects of dopamine on neuronal activity of the caudate nucleus neurons in vitro. Brain Res. 418, 262–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Surmeier, D. J., Eberwine, J., Wilson, C. J., Cao, Y., Stefani, A., and Kitai, S. T. (1992) Dopamine receptor subtypes colocalize in rat striatonigral neurons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10,178–10, 182.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Li, M., West, J. W., Lai, Y., Scheuer, T., and Catterall, W. A. (1992) Functional modulation of brain sodium channels by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation. Neuron 8, 1151–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Surmeier, D. J., Bargas, J., Hemmings, H. C., Jr., Nairn, A. C., and Greengard, P. (1995) Modulation of calcium currents by a D, dopaminergic protein kinase/phosphatase cascade in rat neostriatal neurons. Neuron 14, 385–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Calabresi, P., Benedetti, M., Mercuri, N. B., and Bernardi, G. (1988) Depletion of catecholamines reveals inhibitory effects of bromocriptine and lysuride on neostriatal neurones recorded intracellularly in vitro. Neuropharmacology 27, 579–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Coirini, H., Schumacher, M., Angulo, J. A., and McEwen, B. S. (1990) Increase in striatal dopamine D, receptor mRNA after lesions or haloperidol treatment. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 186, 369–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gerfen, C. R., Engber, T. M., Mahan, L. C., Susel, Z., Chase, T. N., Monsma, F. J., Jr., and Sibley, D. R. (1990) D, and D2 dopamine receptor-regulated gene expression of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Science 250, 1429–1432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Le Moine, C., Normand, E., Guitteny, A. F., Fougue, B., Teoule, R., and Bloch, B. (1990) Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 230–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Surmeier, D. J., Reiner, A., Levine, M. S., and Ariano, M. A. (1993) Are neostriatal dopamine receptors co-localized? Trends Neurosci. 16, 299–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gerfen, C. R., Keefe, K. A., Bloch, B., Le Moine, C., Surmeier, D. J., Reiner, A., Levine, M. S., and Ariano, M. A. (1994) Neostriatal dopamine receptors. Trends Neurosci. 17, 2–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Drago, J., Gerfen, C. R., Lachowicz, J. E., Streiner, H., Hollon, T. R., Love, P. E., et al. (1994) Altered striatal function in a mutant mouse lacking DIA dopamine receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 12,564–12, 568.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Freedman, J. E. and Weight, F. F. (1988) Single K* channels activated by D2 dopamine receptors in acutely dissociated neurons from rat corpus striatum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 3618–3622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Freedman, J. E. and Weight, F. F. (1989) Quinine potently blocks single K* channels activated by dopamine D-2 receptors in rat corpus striatum neurons. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 164, 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lin, Y.-J., Greif, G. J., and Freedman, J. E. (1993) Multiple sulfonylurea-sensitive potassium channels: a novel subtype modulated by dopamine. Mol. Pharmacol. 44, 907–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kitai, S. T. and Surmeier, D. J. (1993) Cholinergic and dopaminergic modulation of potassium conductances in neostriatal neurons, in Advances in Neurology, Vol. 60: Parkinson’s Disease: From Basic Research to Treatment ( Narabayashi, H., Nagatsu, T., Yanagisawa, N., and Mizuno, Y., eds.), Raven, New York, pp. 40–52.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Storm, J. F. (1990) Potassium currents in hippocampal pyramidal cells, in Understanding the Brain Through the Hippocampus (Storm-Mathisen, J., Zimmer, J., and Ottersen, O. P., eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 161–187.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rutherford, A., Garcia-Munoz, M., and Arbuthnott, G. W. (1988) An afterhyperpolarization recorded in striatal cells “in vitro”: effect of dopamine administration. Exp. Brain Res. 71, 399–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cepeda, C., Buchwald, N. A., and Levine, M. S. (1993) Neuromodulatory actions of dopamine in the neostriatum are dependent upon the excitatory amino acid receptor subtypes activated. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 9576–9580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Calabresi, P., De Murtas, M., Mercuri, N. B., and Bernardi, G. (1992) Chronic neuroleptic treatment: D2 dopamine receptor supersensitivity and striatal glutamatergic transmission. Ann. Neurol. 31, 366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bliss, T. V. P. and Collingridge, G. L. (1993) A synaptic model for memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361, 31–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Linden, D. J. (1994) Long-term synaptic depression in the mammalian brain. Neuron 12, 457–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Calabresi, P., Pisani, A., Mercuri, N. B., and Bernardi, G. (1992) Long-term potentiation in the striatum is unmasked by removing the voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptor channels. Eur. J. Neurosci. 4, 929–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Calabresi, P., Maj, R., Mercuri, N. B., and Bernardi, G. (1992) Coactivation of DI and D2 dopamine receptors is required for long-term synaptic depression in the striatum. Neurosci. Lett. 142, 95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Aosaki, T., Graybiel, A. M., and Kimura, M. (1994) Effect of the nigrostriatal dopamine system on acquired neural responses in the striatum of behaving monkeys. Science 265, 412–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Cepeda, C., Walsh, J. P., Hull, C. D., Howard, S. G., Buchwald, N. A., and Levine, M. S. (1989) Dye-coupling in the neostriatum of the rat: I. Modulation by dopamine-depleting lesions. Synapse 4, 229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Heimer, L., Switzer, R. D., and Van Hoesen, G. W. (1982) Ventral striatum and ventral pallidum components of the motor system? Trends Neurosci. 5, 83–87.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Uchimura, N., Higashi, H., and Nishi, S. (1986) Hyperpolarizing and depolarizing actions of dopamine via D-1 and D-2 receptors on nucleus accumbens neurons. Brain Res. 375, 368–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Higashi, H., Inanaga, K., Nishi, S., and Uchimura, N. (1989) Enhancement of dopamine actions on rat nucleus accumbens neurones in vitro after methamphetamine pre-treatment. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 408, 587–603.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Uchimura, N. and North, R. A. (1990) Actions of cocaine on rat nucleus accumbens neurones in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol. 99, 736–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Pennartz, C. M. A., Dolleman-Van der Weel, M. J., Kitai, S. T., and Lopes da Silva, F. H. (1992) Presynaptic dopamine D1 receptors attenuate excitatory and inhibitory limbic inputs to the shell region of the rat nucleus accumbens studied in vitro. J. Neurophysiol. 67, 1325–1334.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Heimer, L. and Alheid, G. F. (1991) Piecing together the puzzle of basal forebrain anatomy, in The Basal Forebrain ( Napier, T. C., Kalivas, P. W., andHanin, I., eds.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Pennartz, C. M. A., Dolleman-Van der Weel, M., and Lopes da Silva, F. H. (1992) Differential membrane properties and dopamine effects in the shell and core of the rat nucleus accumbens studied in vitro. Neurosci. Lett. 136, 109–112.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    O’Donnell, P. and Grace, A. A. (1994) Tonic D2-mediated attenuation of cortical excitation in nucleus accumbens neurons recorded in vitro. Brain Res. 634, 105–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    O’Donnell, P. and Grace, A. A. (1993) Dopaminergic modulation of dye coupling between neurons in the core and shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. J. Neurosci. 13, 3456–3471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Benardo, L. S. and Prince, D. A. (1982) Dopamine modulates a Cat+-activated potassium conductance in mammalian hippocampal pyramidal cells. Nature 297, 76–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Benardo, L. S. and Prince, D. A. (1982) Dopamine action on hippocampal pyramidal cells. J. Neurosci. 2, 415–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Malenka, R. C. and Nicoll, R. A. (1986) Dopamine decreases the calcium-activated afterhyperpolarization in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Brain Res. 379, 210–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Stanzione, P., Calabresi, P., Mercuri, N., and Bernardi, G. (1984) Dopamine modulates CAI hippocampal neurons by elevating the threshold for spike generation: an in vitro study. Neuroscience 13, 1105–1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Frey, U., Huang, Y.-Y., and Kandel, E. R. (1993) Effects of cAMP simulate a late stage of LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Science 260, 1661–1664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Huang, Y.-Y. and Kandel, E. R. (1995) D1/DS receptor agonists induce a protein synthesis-dependent late potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 2446–2450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Le Moal, M. and Simon, H. (1991) Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network: functional and regulatory roles. Physiol. Rev. 71, 155–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Penit-Soria, J., Audinat, E., and Crepel, F. (1987) Excitation of rat prefrontal cortical neurons by dopamine: an in vitro electrophysiological study. Brain Res. 425, 263–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gellman, R. L. and Aghajanian, G. K. (1993) Pyramidal cells in piriform cortex receive a convergence of inputs from monoamine activated GABAergic interneurons. Brain Res. 600, 63–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Pralong, E. and Jones, R. S. G. (1993) Interactions of dopamine with glutamate-and GABA-mediated synaptic transmission in the rat entorhinal cortex in vitro. Eur. J. Neurosci. 5, 760–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Law-Tho, D., Hirsch, J. C., and Crepel, F. (1994) Dopamine modulation of synaptic transmission in rat prefrontal cortex: an in vitro electrophysiological study. Neurosci. Res. 21, 151–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cepeda, C., Radisavljevic, Z., Peacock, W., Levine, M. S., and Buchwald, N. A. (1992) Differential modulation by dopamine of responses evoked by excitatory amino acids in human cortex. Synapse 11, 330–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Law-Tho, D., Desce, J. M., and Crepel, F. (1995) Dopamine favours the emergence of long-term depression versus long-term potentiation in slices of rat prefrontal cortex. Neurosci. Lett. 188, 125–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sawaguchi, T. and Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1991) D1 dopamine receptors in prefrontal cortex: involvement in working memory. Science 251, 947–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Chavez-Noriega, L. E. and Stevens, C. F. (1994) Increased transmitter release at excitatory synapses produced by direct activation of adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal slices. J. Neurosci. 14, 310–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nicoll, R. A. (1988) The coupling of neurotransmitter receptors to ion channels in the brain. Science 241, 545–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    North, R. A. (1989) Drug receptors and the inhibition of nerve cells. Br. J. Pharmacol. 98, 13–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    North, R. A. (1992) Opioid actions on membrane ion channels, in Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 104/1: Opioids 1(Herz, A., Akil, H., and Simon, E. J., eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 773–797.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johan Grenhoff
  • Steven W. Johnson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations