Colour Perception

  • Freerk A. Lootsma
Part of the Applied Optimization book series (APOP, volume 8)


The concepts and ideas of flizzy logic are frequently illustrated via examples taken from colour perception. The reasons are easy to understand: the colour spectrum cannot be subdivided into a set of crisp colour categories, only into a set of vaguely defined categories. Many colours are composites of the four primary colours red, green, yellow, and blue (orange, chartreuse, turquoise,...). Others are composites of the primary colours with black and white (pink, light blue, dark green,....). Since colour categorization is in general a matter of degree, colour categories are best regarded as fuzzy sets on the dimension of wavelength. The present chapter will deal with the linguistic and the physiological basis for the idea. In addition, it will shed some light on the definition of the intersection and the union of fuzzy sets. Our main sources of information are the well-known publications of Berlin and Kay (1969) and Kay and McDaniel (1978).


Membership Function Fuzzy Logic Perceptual System Minimum Operator Colour Perception 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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References to Chapter 8

  1. 1.
    Berlin B., and Kay, P., “Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution”. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kay, P., and McDaniel, C.K., “The Linguistic Significance of the Meaning of Basic Color Terms”. Language 54, 610–646, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Taylor, JR., “Linguistic Categorization, Prototypes in Linguistic Theory”. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zadeh, L.A., “Fuzzy Sets”. Information and Control 8, 338–353, 1965.MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zimmermann, H.J., “Fuzzy Set Theory and its Applications”. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston/Dordrecht/London, third edition, 1996a.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zimmermann, H.J., “Recent Developments in Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies”. In J.F. Baldwin (ed.), “Fuzzy Logic”. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 1–4, 1996b.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freerk A. Lootsma
    • 1
  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyThe Netherlands

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