• Freerk A. Lootsma
Part of the Applied Optimization book series (APOP, volume 8)


Decision making under uncertainty is as old as mankind. Even in the Antiquity some people suspected that uncertainty could be modelled via chance mechanisms. When the Roman consul Ceasar crossed the river Rubicon (49 BC) — the first move in a hazardous attempt to defeat his rival Pompeius — he spoke the famous words: ‘Alea iacta est’. Indeed, the die had been cast, but what were the possible outcomes of his risky action: a rapid victory for Pompeius, a rapid victory for himself, a drawn-out civil war, or a peaceful settlement after some skirmishing? And did Ceasar subjectively assess the outcome probabilities before he decided to move?


Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Number Human Judgement Possibility Distribution Possibility Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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References to Chapter 1

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Freerk A. Lootsma
    • 1
  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyThe Netherlands

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