Problems in the Management of Hypothyroidism

  • Enrico L. Ocampo
  • Martin I. Surks
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE, volume 2)


Overt hypothyroidism occurs in 1.5–2% of women and in 0.2% of men; its incidence increases with age. Most hypothyroid patients have disease of the thyroid gland. Presenting complaints and physical findings vary widely from patient to patient and depend on the severity of the illness. Patients may present with weakness, fatigue, arthralgias, myalgias, muscle cramps, cold intolerance, constipation, lethargy, dryness of the skin, headache, menorrhagia, hoarseness, edema, and unexplained weight gain. Physical findings include varying degrees of brittle nails and hair, pallor, delayed relaxation time of the deep tendon reflexes, keratinic skin color, macroglossia, mental status changes, diastolic hypertension, bradycardia, and, often, a palpable goiter (1) Laboratory investigation may show increased serum cholesterol, abnormal liver enzymes and creatinine kinase, increased serum prolactin, hyponatremia, normochromic, normocytic or macrocytic anemia, and, in those with Hashimoto’s disease, the presence of antithyroid microsomal (antithyroid peroxidase) antibodies (1).


Bone Mineral Density Subclinical Hypothyroidism Hypothyroid Patient Primary Hypothyroidism Overt Hypothyroidism 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico L. Ocampo
  • Martin I. Surks

There are no affiliations available

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