Pituitary Response to Stress

Growth Hormone and Prolactin
  • Mark E. Molitch
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE, volume 4)


The hypothalamus exerts a predominantly inhibitory influence on PRL secretion through one or more PRL inhibitory factors (PIF) that reach the pituitary via the hypothalamic—pituitary portal vessels (Fig. 1). There are PRL-releasing factors (PRF’s) as well. Disruption of the pituitary stalk leads to a moderate increase in PRL secretion as well as to decreased secretion of the other pituitary hormones.


Growth Hormone Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Growth Hormone Secretion Growth Hormone Level Thyrotropin Release Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    De Greef WJ, Visser TJ. Evidence for the involvement of hypothalamic dopamine and thyrotrophinreleasing hormone in suckling-induced release of prolactin. J Endocrinol 1981; 91: 213–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Plotsky PM, Neill JD. Interactions of dopamine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the regulation of prolactin release in lactating rats. Endocrinology 1982; 111: 168–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gibbs DM, Neill JD. Dopamine levels in hypophysial stalk blood in the rat are sufficient to inhibit prolactin secretion in vivo. Endocrinology 1978; 102: 1895–1900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leblanc H, Lachelin CL, Abu-Fadil S, Yen SSC. Effects of dopamine infusion on pituitary hormone secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976; 43: 668–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Rivera JL, Lal S, Ettigi P, et al. Effect of acute and chronic neuroleptic therapy on serum prolactin levels in men and women of different age groups. Clin Endocrinol 1976; 5: 273–278.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fuxe K. Cellular localization of monoamines in the median eminence and in the infundibular stem of some mammals. Acta Physiol Scan 1963; 58: 383–384.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lechan RM. Neuroendocrinology of pituitary hormone regulation. Endocrinol Metab Clinics North Am 1987; 16: 475–501.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Foord SM, Peters JR, Dieguez C, Scanlon MF, Hall R. Dopamine receptors on intact anterior pituitary cells in culture: Functional association with the inhibition of prolactin and thyrotropin. Endocrinology 1983; 112: 1567–1577.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nikolics K, Mason AJ, Szonyi E, Ramachandran J, Seeburg PH. A prolactin-inhibiting factor within the precursor for human gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Nature 1985; 316: 511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Molitch ME. Prolactin. In: Melmed S, ed. The Pituitary. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, 1995, pp. 136–186.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tashjian AH Jr, Barowsky NJ, Jensen DK. Thyrotropin releasing hormone: direct evidence for stimulation of prolactin production by pituitary cells in culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1971; 43: 516–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacobs LS, Snyder PJ, Wilber JF, Utiger RD, Daughaday WH. Increased serum prolactin after administration of synthetic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1971; 33: 996–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Noel GL, Dimond RC, Wartofsky L, Earll JM, Grantz AG. Studies of prolactin and TSH secretion by continuous infusion of small amounts of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1974; 39: 6–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koch Y, Goldhaber G, Fireman I, Zor U, Shani J, Tal E. Suppression of prolactin and thyrotropin secretion in the rat by anti-serum to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 1977; 100: 1476–1478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harris ARC, Christianson D, Smith MS, Fang SL, et al. The physiological role of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the regulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin secretion in the rat. J Clin Invest 1978; 61: 441–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sheward WJ, Fraser HM, Fink G. Effect of immunoneutralization of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone on the release of thyrotrophin and prolactin during suckling or in response to electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in the anaesthetized rat. J Endocrinol 1985; 106: 113–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gautvik KM, Tashjian AH Jr, Kourides IA, et al. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is not the sole physiologic mediator of prolactin release during suckling. N Engl J Med 1974; 290: 1162–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kato Y, Iwasaki Y, Iwasaki J, Abe H, Yanaihara N, Imura H. Prolactin release by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in rats. Endocrinology 1978; 103: 554–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Said S, Porter JC. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Release into hypophyseal portal blood. Life Sci 1979; 24: 227–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abe H, Engler D, Molitch ME, Bollinger-Gruber J, Reichlin. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a physiological mediator of prolactin release in the rat. Endocrinology 1985; 116: 1383–1390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaji H, Chihara C, Abe H, Kita T. Effect of passive immunization with antisera to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine isoleucine amide on 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan-induced prolactin release in rats. Endocrinology 1985; 117: 1914–1919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Itoh N, Obata K, Yanaihara N, Okamoto H. Human preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide contains a novel PHI-27-like peptide, PHM-27. Nature 1983; 304: 547–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ohta H, Kato Y, Tojo H. Further evidence that peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) may function as a prolactin releasing factor in rats. Peptides 1985; 6: 709–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sasaki At, Sato S, Go M, et al. Distribution, plasma concentration, and in vivo prolactin-releasing activity of peptide histidine methionine in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 65: 683–688.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yiangou Y, Gill JS, Chrysanthou BJ, Burrin J, Bloom SB. Infusion of prepro-VIP derived peptides in man. Effect on secretion of prolactin. Neuroendocrinology 1988; 48: 615–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Arnaout MA, Garthwaite TL, Martinson DR. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is synthesized in anterior pituitary tissue. Endocrinology 119: 5: 2052–2057.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hagen TC, Arnaout MA, Scherzer Wj, Martinson DR. Antisera to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide inhibit basal prolactin release from dispersed anterior pituitary cells. Neuroendocrinol 1986; 43: 641–645.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rivier J, Spiess J, Thorner M, Vale W. characterization of a growth hormone-releasing factor from a human pancreatic islet tumour. Nature 1982; 300: 276–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guillemin R, Brazeau P, Bohlen P, Esch F, Ling N, Wehrenberg WB. Growth hormone-releasing factor from a human pancreatic tumor that caused acromegaly. Science 1982; 218: 585–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bohlen P, Brazeau P, Bloch B, Ling N, Gaillard R, Guillemin R. Human hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor (GRF): Evidence for two forms identical to tumor derived GRF-44-NH2 and GRF-40. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1983; 114: 930–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wehrenberg WB, Ling N, Brazeau P, et al. somatocrinin, growth hormone releasing factor, stimulates secretion of growth hormone in anesthetized rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1982; 109: 382–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barinaga M, Yamomoto G, Rivier C, Vale W, Evans R, Rosenfeld MG. Transcriptional regulation of growth hormone gene expression by growth hormone-releasing factor. Nature 1983; 306: 74, 75.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bilizikjian IM, Vale WW. Stimulation of adenosine 3’-5’-monophosphate production by growth hormone-releasing factor and its inhibition by somatostatin in anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Endocrinology 1983; 113: 1726–1731.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spada A, Vallar L, Giannattasio G. Presence of an adenylate cyclase dually regulated by somatostatin and human pancreatic growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor in GH-secreting cells. Endocrinology 1984; 115: 1203–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wehrenberg WB, Block B, Phillips BJ. Antibodies to growth hormone-releasing factor inhibit somatic growth. Endocrinology 1984; 115: 1218–1220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thorner MO, Spiess J, Vance ML, et al. Human pancreatic growth-hormone-releasing factor selectively stimulates growth hormone secretion in man. Lancet 1983; 1: 24–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosenthal Sm, Schirock EA, Kaplan SL, Guillemin R, Grumbach MM. Synthetic human pancreas growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates growth hormone secretion in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57: 677–679.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goldman JA, Molitch M, Thorner M, Vale W, Rivier J, Reichlin S. Growth hormone and prolactin response to bolus and sustained infusions of GHRH-1–40-OH in man. J Endocrinol Invest.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lechan RM, Lin HD, Ling N, Jackson IMD, Jacobson S, Reichlin S. Distribution of immunoreactive growth hormone releasing factor (1–44) NH2 in the tuberoinfundibular system of the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 1984; 309: 55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shen L-P, Rutter JW. Sequence of the human somatostatin gene. Science 1984; 224: 168–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Charpenet G, Patel YC. Characterization of tissue and releasable molecular forms of somatostatin28[1–12] like immunoreactivity in rat median eminence. Endocrinology 1985; 116: 1868–1868.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Millar RP, Klaff LJ, Barron JL, Levitt NS, Ling N. Somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 suppression of arginine, insulin-, and TRH-stimulated GH and PRL secretion in man Clin Endocrinol 1983; 18: 277–285.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Abe H, Kato Y, Chiba T, Taminato T, Fujita T. Plasma immunoreactive somatostatin levels in rat hypophysial portal blood: effect of glucagon administration. Life Sci 1978; 23: 1647–1654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Terry LC, Martin JB. The effects of lateral hypothalamic-medial forebrain stimulation and somatostatin antiserum on pulsatile growth hormone secretion in freely behaving rats: evidence for a dual regulatory mechanism. Endocrinology 1981; 109: 622–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Terry LC, Willoughby JO, Brazeau P, Martin JB. Antiserum to somatostatin prevents stress-induced inhibition of growth hormone secretion in the rat. Science 1976; 192: 565–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Siler TM, VandenBerg G, Yen SSC, Brazeau P, Vale W, Guillemin R. Inhibition of growth hormone release in humans by somatostatin. J Clin Endocrinol 1973; 37: 632–634.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Copinschi G, Vitasoro E, Vanhaelst L, Leclercq R, Golstein J, L’Hermite M. Specific inhibition by somatostatin of growth hormone release after hypoglycemia in normal man. Clin Endocrinol 1974; 3: 441–445.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lamberts SWJ, van der Lely A-J, de Herder WW, Hofland LJ. Octreotide. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 246–254.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    James RA, Weightman DR. Somatostatin receptors: types and classification in the pituitary. The Endocrinologist 1995; 5: 55–60.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Plotsky PM, Vale W. Patterns of growth hormone-releasing factor and somatostatin secretion into the hypophysial-portal circulation of the rat. Science 1985; 230: 461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tannenbaum GS, Ling N. The interrelationship of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor and somatostatin in generation of the ultradian rhythm of GH secretion. Endocrinology 1984; 115: 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Frohman LA, Downs TR, Clarke IJ, Thomas GB: Measurement of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin in hypothalamic-portal plasma of unanesthetized sheep. J Clin Invest 1990; 86: 17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Katakami H, Downs TR, Frohman LA. Inhibitory effect of hypothalamic medial preoptic area somatostatin on growth hormone-releasing factor in the rat. Endocrinology 1988; 123: 1103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Epelbaum J, Moyse E, Tannenbaum GS, Kordon C, Beaudet A. Combined autoradiographic and immunohistochemical evidence for an association of somatostatin binding sites with growth hormone-releasing factor-containing nerve cell bodies in the rat arcuate nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol 1989; 1: 109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Aguila MC, McCann. Evidence that growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates somatostatin release in vitro via I3-endorphin. Endocrinology 1987; 120: 341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martha PM Jr., Blizzard RM, McDonald JA, Thorner MO, Rogol AD. A persistent pattern of varying pituitary responsivity to exogenous growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone in GH-deficient children: evidence supporting periodic somatostatin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 67: 449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mild N, Ono M, Shizume K. Evidence that opiatergic and a-aerenergic mechanisms stimulate rat growth hormone release via growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF). Endocrinology 1984; 114: 1950–1952.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Tones I, Guaza C, Fernandez-Durango R, Borrell J, Charo AL. Evidence for modulatory role of catecholamine on hypothalamic somatostatin in the rat. Neuroendocrinology 1982; 35: 159–162.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chihara K, Minamitani N, Kaji H, Kodama H, Kita T, Fujita T. Noradrenegic modulation of human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor (hpGHRF1–44)-induced growth hormone release in conscious male rabbits: involvement of endogenous somatostatin. Endocrinology 1984; 114: 1402–1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Krulich L, Mayfield MA, Steele MK, McMillen BA, McCann SM, Koenig JI. Differential effects of pharmacological manipulations of central al and a2-adrenergic receptors on the secretion of thyrotropin and growth hormone in male rats. Endocrinology 1982; 110: 796–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vance ML, Kaiser DL, Frohman LA, Rivier J, Vale WW, Thorner MO. Role of dopamine and bromocriptine augment growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-stimulated GH secretion in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 64: 1136–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Casanueva FF, Villanueva L, Dieguez C, et al. Atropine blockade of GHRH-induced GH secretion in man is not exerted at pituitary level. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986; 64: 186–191.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jaffe CA, DeMott-Friberg R, Barkan AL. Endogenous growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone is required for GH responses to pharmacological stimuli. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 934–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Neill JD. Effect of “stress” on serum prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels during the estrous cycle of the rat. Endocrinology 1970; 87: 1192–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Noel GL, Suh HK, Stone SJG, Frantz AE. Human prolactin and growth hormone release during surgery and other conditions of stress. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1972; 35: 840–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gala RR. The physiology and mechanisms of the stress induced changes in prolactin secretion in the rat. Life Sci 1990; 46: 1407–1420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harms PG, Langlier P, McCann SM. Modification of stress-induced prolactin release by dexamethasone or adrenalectomy. Endocrinology 1975; 96: 475–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Subramanian MG, Gala RR. The influence of adrenalectomy and of corticosterone administration on the ether-induced increase in plasma prolactin in ovariectomized estrogen-treated rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1978; 157: 415–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Corenblum B, Taylor PJ. Mechanisms of control of prolactin release in response to apprehension stress and anesthesia-surgery success. Fertil Steril 1981; 36: 712–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Spiler IJ, Molitch ME. Lack of modulation of pituitary hormone stress response by neural pathways involving opiate receptors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980; 50: 516–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Woolf PD, Lee LA, Leebaw WF. Hypoglycemia as a provocative test of prolactin release. Metabolism 1978; 27: 869–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Woolf PD, Lee LA, Leebaw W, Thompson D. Intracellular glucopenia causes prolactin release in man. J Clinic Endocrinol Metab 1977; 45: 377–382.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Whitaker MB, Corenblum B, Taylor PJ. Control of the hypoglycemia release of prolactin. Prog Reprod Biol 1980; 6: 77–82.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chang FE, Dodds WG, Sullivan M, Kim MH. The acute effects of exercise on prolactin and growth hormone secretion: Comparison between sedentary women and women runners with normal and abnormal menstrual cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986; 62: 551–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chang FE, Richards SR, Kim MH, Malarkey WB. Twenty-four hour prolactin profiles and prolactin responses to dopamine in long distance running women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984; 58: 631–635.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Copinschi G, Hartog M, Earll JM, Havel RJ. Effect of various blood sampling procedures on serum levels of immunoreactive human growth hormone. Metabolism 1967; 16: 402–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schalch DS. The influence of physical stress and exercise on growth hormone and insulin secretion in man. J Lab Clin Med 1967; 69: 256–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Charters AC, Odell WD, Thompson JC. Anterior pituitary function during surgical stress and convalescence. Radioimmunoassay measurement of blood TSH, LH, FSH and growth hormone. J Clin Endocrinol 1969; 29: 63–71.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Carey LC, Cloutier CT, Lowery BD. Growth hormone and adrenal cortical response to shock and trauma in the human. Ann Surg 1971; 174: 451–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Newsome HH, Rose JC. The response of human adrenocorticotrophic hormone and growth hormone to surgical stress. J Clin Endocrinol 1971; 33: 481–487.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hagen C, Brandt MR, Kehlet H. Prolactin, LH, FSH, GH and cortisol response to surgery and the effect of epidural analgesia. Acta Endocrinol 1980; 94: 151–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Frohman LA, Horton ES, Lebovitz HE. Growth hormone releasing action of a pseudomonas endotoxin (Piromen). Metabolism 1967; 16: 57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kohler PO, O’Malley BW, Rayford PL, Lipsett MB, Odell WD. Effect of pyrogen on blood levels of pituitary trophic hormones. Observations of the usefulness of the growth hormone response in the detection of pituitary disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1967; 27: 219–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sibbald WJ, Short A, Cohen MP, Wilson RF. Variations in adrenocortical responsiveness during severe bacterial infections. Ann Surg 1966; 186: 29–33.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Cornil A, Glinoer D, Leclercq R, Copinschi G. Adrenocortical and somatotropic secretions in acute and chronic respiratory insufficiency. Am Rev Respir Dis 1975; 112: 77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kamijo K, Saito A, Yachi A, Wada T. Growth hormone response to thryotrophin-releasing hormone in cancer patients. Endocrinol Japon 1980; 27: 451–455.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Richmand DA, Molitch ME, O’Donnell T. Altered thyroid hormone levels in bacterial sepsis: the role of nutritional adequacy. Metabolism 1980; 29: 936–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vigas M, Malatinsky J, Nemeth S, Jurcovicova J. Alpha-adrenergic control of growth hormone release during surgical stress in man. Metabolism 1977; 26: 399–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Martin JB. Functions of central nervous system neurotransmitters in regulation of growth hormone secretion. Fed Proc 1980; 39: 2902–2906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Roth J, Glick SM, Yalow RS, Berson SA. Hypoglycemia: a potent stimulus to secretion of growth hormone. Science 1963; 140: 987–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Frantz AG, Rabkin MT. Human growth hormone. Clinical measurement: response to hypoglycemia and suppression by corticosteroids. N Engl J Med 1964; 271: 1375–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schalch DS, Parker ML. A sensitive double antibody immunoassay for human growth hormone in plasma. Nature 1964; 203: 1141–1142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Greenwood FC, Landon J, Stamp TCB. The plasma sugar, free fatty acid, cortisol, and growth hormone response to insulin. I. In control subjects. J Clin Invest 1966; 45: 429–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Glick SM. Hypoglycemic threshold for human growth hormone release. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1970; 30: 619–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lin T, Tucci JR. Provocative tests of growth hormone release. A comparison of results with seven stimuli. Ann Intern Med 1974; 80: 464–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tesone M, Filho-Oliveira RM, Charreau EH. Prolactin binding in rat Langerhans islets. J Receptor Res 1980; 1: 355–372.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Landgraf R, Leurs-Landgraf MMC, Weissmann A, Hörl R, von Werder K, Scriba PC. Prolactin: A diabetogenic hormone. Diabetologia 1977; 13: 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gustafson AB, Banasiak MF, Kalkhoff RK, Hagen TC, Kim H-J. Correlation of hyperprolactinemia with altered plasma insulin and glucagon: Similarity to effects of late human pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980; 51: 242–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Schernthaner G, Prager R, Punzengruber C, Luger A. Severe hyperprolactinaemia is associated with decreased insulin binding in vitro and insulin resistance in vivo. Diabetologia 1985; 28: 138–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Scobie IN, Kesson CM, Ratcliffe JG, MacCuish AC. The effects of prolonged bromocriptine administration on PRL secretion, GH and glycaemic control in stable insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Endocrinol 1983; 18: 179–185.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nagy E, Berczi I. Immunodeficiency in hypophysectomized rats. Acta Endocrinol 1978; 89: 530–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nagy E, Berczi I, Friesen HG. Regulation of immunity in rats by lactogenic and growth hormones. Acta Endocrinol 1983; 102: 351–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Russel DM, Kibler R, Matrisian L, Larsen DF, Poulos B, Magun BE. Prolactin receptor on rat lymphoid tissues and on human T- and B-lymphocytes Antagonism of prolactin binding by cyclosporine. J Immunol 1985; 134: 3027–3031.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    O’Neal KD, Schwarz LA, Yu-Lee L-Y. Prolactin receptor gene expression in lymphoid cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1991; 82: 127–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dardenne M, Kelly PA, Bach J-F, Savino W. Identification and functional activity of prolactin receptors in thymic epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88: 9700–9704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bernton EW, Meltzer MS, Holaday JW. Suppression of macrophage activation and t-lymphocyte function in hypoprolactinemic mice. Science 1988; 239: 401–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Blank M, Palestine A, Nussenblatt R, Shoenfeld Y: Down-regulation of autoantibody levels of cyclosporine and bromocriptine treatment in patients with uremia. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1990; 54: 87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Clevenger CV, Altmann SW, Prystowsky MB. Requirement of nuclear prolactin for interleukin2-stimulated proliferation of T lymphocytes. Science 1991; 253: 77–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Clevenger CV, Sillman AL, Hanley-Hyde J, Prystowsky MB. Requirement for prolactin during cell cycle regulated gene expression in cloned T-lymphocytes. Endocrinology 1992; 1309: 3216–3222.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hartman DP, Holaday JW, Bernton EW. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by antibodies to prolactin. FASEB 1989; 3: 2194–2202.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Montgomery DW, Zukoski CF, Shah GN. Concanavalin A-stimulated murine splenocytes produce a factor with prolactin-like bioactivity and immunoreactivity. J Biochem Biophys 1987; 145 (2): 692–698.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hiestand PC, Mekler P, Nordmann R. Prolactin as a modulator of lymphocyte responsiveness provides a possible mechanism of action for cyclosporine. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 2599–2603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    DiMattia GE, Gellersen B, Bohnet HG, Friesen HG. A Human B-lymphoblastoid cell line produces prolactin. Endocrinology 1988; 122: 2508–2517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sabharwal P, Glaser R, Lafuse W, Varma S, Liu Q, Arkins S, Kooijman R, Kutz L, Kelley KW, Malarkey WB. Prolactin synthesized and secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: an autocrine growth factor for lymphoproliferation. Proc Natl Aced Sci USA 1992; 89: 7713–7716.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pelligrini K, Lebrun J-J, Ali S, Kelly PA. Expression of prolactin and its receptor in human lymphoid cells. Mol Endocrinol 1992; 6: 1023–1031.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wu H, Devi R, Malarkey WB. Expression and localization of prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid in the human immune system. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 349–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Azad N, Agrawal L, Emanuele MA, Kelley MR, Mohagheghpour N, Lawrence AM, Emanuele NV. Neuroimmunoendocrinology. Am J Reprod Immunol 1991; 26: 160–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Smith EM. Hormonal activities of cytokines. In: Blalock JE, ed. Neuroimmunoendocrinology, 2nd ed., S. Karger, Basel, 1992, pp. 154–169.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mandrup-Poulsen T, Nerup J, Reimers JI, Pociot F, Anderson HU, Karlsen A, Bjerre U, Bergholdt R. Cytokines and the endocrine system. I. The immunoendocrine network. Eur J Endocrinol 1995; 133: 660–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Di Carlo R, Meli R, Galdiero M, Nuzzo I, Bentivoglio C, Romano Carratelli C. Prolactin protection against lethal effects of salmonella typhimurium. Life Sci 1993; 53: 981–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    McMurray R, Keisler D, Kanuckel K, Izui S, Walker SE. Prolactin influences autoimmune disease activity in the female B/W mouse. J Immunol 1991; 147: 3780–3787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Harris RD, Kay NE, Seljeskog EL, Murray KJ, Douglas SD. Prolactin suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro. J Neurosurg 1979; 50: 462–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fornari MC, Palacios MF, Diez RA, Intebi AD. Decreased chemotaxis of neutrophils in acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. Eur J Endocrinol 1994; 130: 463–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sabharwal P, Zwilling B, Glaser R, Malarkey WB. Cellular immunity in patients with acromegaly and prolactinomas. Prog Neuroendocrinimmunology 1992; 5: 120–125.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Vidaller A, Guadarrama F, Llorente L, Méndez JP, Larrea F, Villa AR, Alarcón-Segovia D. Hyperprolactinemia inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function in vivo and its bromocriptine treatment not only corrects it but makes it more efficient. J Clin Immunol 1992; 12: 210–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nagy E, Chalmers IM, Baragar FD, Friesen HG, Berczi I. Prolactin deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 1662–1668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lavalle C, Loyo E, Paniagua R, Bermudez JA, Herrera J, Graef A, Gonzalez-Barcena D, Fraga A. Correlation study between prolactin and androgens in male patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1987; 14: 268–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Polomeev M, Prokaeva T, Nassonova V, Nassonova E, Masenko V, Ovtraht N. Prolactin levels in men with SLE and RA: J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 1569–1570.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Jara LJ, Gomez-Sanchez C, Silveira LH, Martinez-Osuna P, Vasey FB, Espinoza LR. Hyperprolactinemia in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease activity. Am J Med Sci 1992; 303: 222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Pauzner R, Urowitz MB, Gladman DD, Gough JM. Prolactin in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 2064–2067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Neidhart M. Elevated serum prolactin or elevated prolatin/cortisol ratio are associated with autoimmune processes in systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 476–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    El-Garf A, Salah S, Shaarawy M, Zaki S, Anwer S. Prolactin hormone in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: a possible relationship to disease activity and CNS manifestations. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 374–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Jara LJ, Silveira LH, Cuellar ML, Pineda CJ, Scopelitis E, Espinoz LR. Hyperprolactinemia in Reiter’s syndrome. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 1292–1297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bravo G, Zazueta B, Lavalle C. An acute remission of Reiter’s syndrome in male patients treated with bromocriptine. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 747–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Murphy WJ, Rui H, Longo DL. Effects of growth hormone and prolactin immune development and function. Life Sci 1995; 57: 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jones JI, Clemmons DR. Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins: biological actions. Endocr Rev 1995; 16: 3–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Merimee TJ, Rabin D. A survey of growth hormone secretion and action. Metabolism 1973; 22: 1235–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fix JA, Moore WV. Growth hormone stimulation of glucose transport in isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions and primary cultures. Endocrinology 1981; 108: 239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Goodman HM. Biological activity of bacterial derived human growth hormone in adipose tissue of hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 1984; 114: 131–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Albertsson-Wikland K, Isaksson O. Time course of the effect of growth hormone in vitro on amino acid and monosaccharide transport and on protein synthesis in diaphragm of young normal rats. Endocrinology 1978; 102: 1445–1451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Schwartz J. Rapid modulation of protein synthesis in normal rats by specific neutralization and repo-lacement of growth hormone. Endocrinology 1982; 111: 2087–2090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rabinowitz D, Klassen GA, Zierler KL. Effect of human growth hormone on muscle and adipose tissue metabolism in the forearm of man. J Clin Invest 1965; 44: 51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rizza RA, Mandarino LJ, Gerich JE. Effects of growth hormone on insulin action in man. Mechanisms of insulin resistance, impaired suppression of glucose production, and impaired stimulation of glucose utilization. Diabetes 1982; 31: 663–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schoenle E, ZapfJ, Froesch ER. Regulation of rat adipocyte glucose transport by growth hormone: no mediation by insulin-like growth factors. Endocrinology 1983; 112: 384–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gerich JE, Lorenzi M, Bier DM, et al. Effects of physiologic levels of glucagon and growth hormone on human carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. J Clin Invest 1976; 57: 875–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Bolli GB, Gerich JE. The “dawn phenomenon”-a common occurrence in both non-insulin-dependent and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 746–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bratusch-Marrain P, Gasic S, Waldhaus WK, Nowotny P. Effect of growth hormone on splanchnic glucose and substrate metabolism following oral glucose loading in healthy man. Diabetes 1984; 33: 19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Fowelin J, Attvall S, von Schenk H, Smith U, Lager I. Characterization of the insulin-antagonistic effect of growth hormone in man. Diabetologia 1991; 34: 500–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Fowelin J, Attvall S, von Schenck H, Smith U, Lager I. Characterization of the insulin-antagonistic effect of growth hormone in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Med 1995; 12: 990–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Keller V, Schnell H, Girard J, Stauffacher W. Effect of physiological elevation of plasma growth hormone levels on ketone body kinetics and lipolysis in normal acutely insulin deficient man. Diabetologia 1984; 26: 103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Weissman C. The metabolic response to stress: an overview and update. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 308–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mizock BA. Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism during stress: a review of the literature. Am J Med 1995; 98: 75–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Frayn KN, Price DA, Maycock PF, Carroll SM. Plasma somatomedin activity after injury in man and its relationship to other hormonal and metabolic changes. Clin Endocrinol 1984; 20: 179–187.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Dahn MS, Lange P, Jacobs LA. Insulin-like growth factor I production is inhibited in human sepsis. Arch Surg 1988; 123: 1409–1414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Jeevanandam M, Ramias L, Shamos RF, Schiller WR. Decreased growth hormone levels in the catabolic phase of severe injury. Surgery 1992; 111: 495–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wilmore DW, Moylan JA, Breistow BF, Mason AD, Pruitt BA. Anabolic effects of human growth hormone and high caloric feedings following thermal injury. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1974; 138: 875–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Gore DC, Honeycutt D, Jahoor F, Wolfe RR, Herndon DN. Effect of exogenous growth hormone on whole-body and isolated-limb protein kinetics in burned patients. Arch Surg 1991; 126: 38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gore DC, Honeycutt D, Jahoor F, Rutan T, Wolfe RR, Herndon DN. Effect of exogenous growth hormone on glucose utilization in burn patients. J Surg Res 1991; 51: 518–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ziegler TR, Rombeau JL, Young LS, Fong Y, Marano M, Lowry SF, Wilmore DW. Recombinant human growth hormone enhances the metabolic efficacy of parenteral nutrition: a double-blind, randomized controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 74: 865–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Voerman HJ, Strack van Schijndel RJM, Groeneveld ABJ, de Boer H, Nauta JP, van der Veen EA, Thijs LG. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with severe sepsis. Ann Surg 1992; 216: 648–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Villanua MA, Szary A, Bartke A, Esquifino AI. Changes in lymphoid organs of Ames dwarf mice after treatment with growth hormone, prolactin, or ectopic pituitary transplants. J Endocrinol Invest 1992; 15: 587–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Murphy WJ, Durum SK, Longo DL. Differential effects of growth hormone and prolactin on murine T cell development and function. J Exp Med 1993; 178: 231–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Clark R, Strasser J, McCabe S, Robbins K, Jardieu P. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulation of lymphopoiesis. J Clin Invest 1993; 92: 540–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lesniak MA, Gorden P, Roth J, Gavin JR. Binding of 125I-human growth hormone to specific receptors in human cultured lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 1974; 249: 1661–1667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Badolato R, Bond HM, Valerio G, Petrella A, Morrone G, Waters MJ, et al. Differential expression of surface membrane growth hormone receptor on human peripheral blood lymphocytes by dual fluorochrome flow cytometry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 79: 984–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Kooijman R, Willems M, De Haas CJ, Rijkers GT, Schuurmans AI, Buul-Offers SC, et al. Expression of type I insulin-like factor receptors on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Endocrinology 1992; 131: 2244–2250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Bathena SJ, Louie J, Schechter GP, Redmond RS, Wahl L, Recant L. Identification of human mononuclear leucocytes bearing receptors for somatostatin and glucagon. Diabetes 1981; 30: 127–131.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kimata H, Yoshida A. Effect of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I on immunoglobulin production by and growth of B-cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 78: 635–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Merchav S, Tatarsky H, Hochberg Z. Enhancement of human granulopoiesis in vitro by biosynthetic insulin-like growth factor I/Somatomedin C and human growth hormone. J Clin Invest 1988; 81: 791–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Pawlikowski M, Stepien H, Kunert-Radek J, Zelazowski P, Schally AV Immunomodulatory action of somatostatin. Ann NY Aced Sci 1987; 496: 233–239.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Edwards CK III, Arkins S, Yunger LM, Blum A, Dantzer R, Kelley KW. The macrophage-activating properties of growth hormone. Cell Mol Neurobiol 1992; 12: 499–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Warwick-Davies J, Lowrie DB, Cole PJ. Growth hormone activation of human monocytes for superoxide production but not tumor necrosis factor production, cell adherence or action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immune 1995; 4312–4136, 1995.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Auernhammer CJ, Strasburger CJ. Effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I on the immune system. Eur J Endocrinol 1995; 133: 635–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Payon DA, Levin JD, Goetzl EJ. Modulation of immunity and hypersensitivity by sensory neuropeptides. J Immunol 1984; 132: 1601–1604.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pawlikowski M, Zelazowski P, Stepine H. Enhancement of human lymphocyte natural killer activity by somatostatin. Neuropeptides 1989; 13: 75–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hattori N, Shimatsu A, Sugita M, Kumagai S, Imura H. Immunoreactive growth hormone (GH) secretion by human lymphocytes: augmented release by exogenous GH. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990; 168: 396–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Varma S, Sabharwal P, Sheridan JF, Malarkey WB. Growth hormone secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells detected by an enzyme-linked immunoplaque assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 76: 49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Hattori N, Ikekubo K, Ishihara T, Mondera K, Hino M, Kurahachi H. Spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion by unstimulated human lymphocytes and the effects of GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 79: 1678–1680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wu H, Devi R, Malarkey WB. Localization of growth hormone messenger ribonucleic acid in the human immune system-A Clinical Research Center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 127888–1282.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Geffner ME, Bersch N, Lippe BM, Rosenfeld RG, Hintz RL, Golde DW. Growth hormone mediates the growth of T-lymphoblast cell lines via locally generated insulin-like growth factor I. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 71: 464–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Stephanou A, Knight RA, Lightman SL. Production of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-like peptide and its mRNA by human lymphocytes. Neuroendocrinology 1991; 53: 628–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Peterson BH, Rapaport R, Henry DP, Huseman C, Moore WV. Effect of treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone (GH) on peripheral blood lymphocyte populations and function in growth hormone-deficient children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 70: 1756–1760.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Spadoni GL, Rossi P, Ragno W, Galli E, Cianfarani S, Galasso C, et al. Immune function in growth hormone-deficient children treated with biosynthetic growth hormone. Acta Paediatr Scand 1991; 80: 76–79.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Abbassi V, Bellanti JA. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity in growth hormone-deficient children: effect of therapy with human growth hormone. Pediatr Res 1985; 19: 299–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Crist DM, Kramer JC. Supplemental growth hormone increases the tumor cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells in healthy adults with normal growth hormone secretion. Metabolism 1990; 39: 1320–1324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Intebi AD, Palacios MF, Sen L, Diez RA. Defective B-cell differentiation under PWM induction in acromegaly. Prog Neuroendocrinimmunol 1992; 5: 62–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark E. Molitch

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations