History of Laparoscopic Surgery

  • Jeffrey W. Milsom
  • Bartholomäus Böhm


Endeavors to peer directly into the living human body probably began in 1806, when Bozzini looked inside the bladder with an apparatus called the “Lichtleiter.”1 Bozzini envisioned and clearly described in his writings that endoscopy could someday be used as a diagnostic tool for the urethra, the bladder, the rectum, the vagina, the cervix, and the pharynx, as well as a surgical tool for endoscopic polypectomy or removal of bladderstones. He also surmised that endoscopy would augment the understanding of the physiology and the pathology of an organ if it could be visualized in vivo. His Lichtleiter used a candle as a light source and consisted of a light container, mirrors, and tubes through which the light passed. As well as describing the Lichtleiter (Figure 1.1) in detail, Bozzini explained the difficulties of reflecting light through tubes, a problem that remained unsolved for another century.


Laparoscopic Surgery Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Peritoneal Cavity Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery Lens System 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey W. Milsom
    • 1
  • Bartholomäus Böhm
    • 2
  1. 1.Section of Colorectal Surgery Research, Department of Colorectal SurgeryThe Cleveland Clinic FoundationClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Universitätsklinik und Poliklinik für ChirurgieUniversitätsklinikums CharitéBerlinGermany

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