The Instrument

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


We’ve introduced all the essential components of the TEM. Now it’s time to see how the guns, lenses, and detectors are combined to form the microscope. Just as we do for the visible-light microscope (VLM), it’s convenient to divide the TEM up into three components: the illumination system, the objective lens/stage, and the imaging system. The illumination system comprises the gun and the condenser lenses and its role is to take the electrons from the source and transfer them to your specimen. You can operate the illumination system in two principal modes: parallel beam and convergent beam. The first mode is used for TEM imaging and diffraction, while the second is used for scanning (STEM) imaging, microanalysis, and microdiffraction.


Objective Lens Parallel Beam Illumination System Stem Image Condenser Lens 
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General References

  1. Chapman, S.K. (1980) Understanding and Optimizing Electron Microscope Performance 1. Transmission Microscopy, Science Reviews Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  2. Chapman, S.K. (1986) Maintaining and Monitoring the TEM, Royal Microscopical Society Handbook, No. 8, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Chescoe, D. and Goodhew, P.J. (1990) The Operation of Transmission and Scanning Microscopes, Royal Microscopical Society Handbook, No. 20, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar

Specific References

  1. Edington, J.W. (1976) Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Goldstein, J.I., Newbury, D.E., Echlin, P., Joy, D.C., Romig, A.D. Jr. Lyman, C.E., Fiori, C.E., and Lifshin, E. (1992) Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. LePoole, J.B. (1947) Philips Tech. Rundsch. 9, 93.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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