Other Imaging Techniques

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


What we’ve discussed in the preceding nine chapters comprises “classical” TEM imaging, based on BF or DF techniques. Diffraction contrast, phase contrast, and to a lesser extent mass-thickness contrast, are the mechanisms we use to characterize our specimens. We control the contrast by inserting the objective aperture, or a STEM detector, and excluding or collecting electrons that have been scattered by the different processes. However, there are variations to the standard ways in which we can extract more information from a TEM image and in this chapter we’ll present a brief overview of some of them. Most of these operational modes that we’ll discuss here are somewhat esoteric and have rather specialized applications. Nevertheless, you should know about them because they may be just what you need to solve your particular problem. There’s no importance to the order in which we go through the various modes, but we’ll cover modifications to conventional parallel-beam TEM imaging as well as those techniques that require STEM and use some of the electron detectors we discussed in Chapter 7. It turns out, however, that the various procedures are often feasible in either TEM or STEM mode.


Objective Lens Flux Line Thin Specimen Stem Image Objective Aperture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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