Strain Fields

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


As we discussed in Chapter 23, bending of the lattice planes causes a change in the diffraction conditions and therefore a change in the contrast of the image. The presence of a lattice defect in the specimen causes the planes to bend close to the defect. The special feature here is that the bending varies not just laterally, but also through the specimen. Since the details of the bending generally depend on the characteristics of the defect, we can learn about the defect by studying the contrast in the TEM image. This simple principle has led to one of the main applications of TEM, namely, the study of defects in crystalline materials. We can claim that our understanding of the whole field of dislocations and interfaces, for example, has advanced because of TEM. We have even discovered new defects using TEM.


Displacement Field Strain Field Burger Vector Screw Dislocation Edge Dislocation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


General References

  1. Amelinckx, S. (1964) The Direct Observation of Dislocations, Academic Press, New York. A fascinating summary of the early studies by TEM.Google Scholar
  2. Amelinckx, S. (1979) in Dislocations in Solids, 2 ( Ed. F.R.N. Nabarro), North-Holland, New York. If you’re interested in dislocations there are many other volumes in this set.Google Scholar
  3. Amelinckx, S. and Van Dyck, D. (1992) in Electron Diffraction Techniques, 2 (Ed. J.M. Cowley), p. 1, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Edington, J.W. (1976) Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Head, A.K., Humble, P., Clarebrough, L.M., Morton, A.J., and Forwood, C.T. (1976) Computed Electron Micrographs and Defect Identification, North-Holland, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Hirsch, P.B., Howie, A., Nicholson, R.B., Pashley, D.W., and Whelan, M.J. (1977) Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals, 2nd edition, Krieger, Huntington, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Hirth, J.P. and Lothe, J. (1982) Theory of Dislocations, 2nd edition, John Wiley Sons, New York. The definitive textbook, but not for the beginner.Google Scholar
  8. Hull, D. and Bacon, D.J. (1984) Introduction to Dislocations, 3rd edition, Pergamon Press, New York. A great introductory text.Google Scholar
  9. Matthews, J.W., Ed. (1975) Epitaxial Growth, Parts A and B, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Nabarro, F.R.N. (1987) Theory of Dislocations, Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Porter, D.A. and Easterling, K.E. (1992) Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, 2nd edition, Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Smallman, R.E. (1985) Modern Physical Metallurgy, 4th edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.Google Scholar
  13. Sutton, A.P. and Balluffi, R.W. (1995) Interfaces in Crystalline Materials, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Wolf, D. and Yip, S., Eds. (1992) Materials Interfaces: Atomic-Level Structure and Properties, Chapman and Hall, New York. A collection of review articles.Google Scholar
  15. The original series of papers by P.B. Hirsch, A. Howie, M.J. Whelan, and H. Hashimoto in Proc. Roy. Soc. London A252, 499 (1960), 263, 217 (1960), 267, 206 (1962), and 268, 80 (1962) are strongly recommended.Google Scholar

Specific References

  1. Amelinckx, S. (1992) in Electron Microscopy in Materials Science (Eds. P.G. Merli and M. V. Antisari), World Scientific, River Edge, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  2. Ashby, M.F. and Brown, L.M. (1963) Phil. Mag. 8, 1083 and 1649.Google Scholar
  3. de Graf, M. and Clarke, D.R. (1993) Ultramicroscopy 49, 354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Eshelby, J.D., Read, W.T., and Shockley, W. (1953) Acta Metall. 1, 251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Goringe, M.J. (1975) in Electron Microscopy in Materials Science (Eds. U. Valdrè and E. Ruedl), p. 555, Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  6. Hirsch, P.B., Howie, A., and Whelan, M.J. (1960) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A252, 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Howie, A. and Basinski, Z.S. (1968) Phil. Mag. 17, 1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Howie, A. and Sworn, H. (1970) Phil. Mag. 31, 861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hughes, D.A. and Hansen, N. (1995) Scripta Met. Mater. 33, 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Humble, P. and Forwood, C.T. (1975) Phil. Mag. 31, 1011 and 1025.Google Scholar
  11. Karth, S., Krumhansl, J.A., Sethna, J.P., and Wickham, L K (1995) Phys. Rev. B 52, 803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Morton, A.J. and Forwood, C.T. (1973) Cryst. Lattice Defects 4, 165.Google Scholar
  13. Rasmussen, D.R. and Carter, C.B. (1991) J. Electron Microsc. Technique 18, 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Steeds, J.W. (1973) Anisotropic Elastic Theory of Dislocations, Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  15. Takayanagi, K. (1988) Surf. Sci. 205, 637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Thölén, A.R. (1970a) Phil. Mag. 22, 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Thölén, A.R. (1970b) Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 2, 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Thölén, A.R. and Tafto, J. (1993) Ultramicroscopy 48, 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tunstall, W.J., Hirsch, P.B., and Steeds, J.W. (1964) Phil. Mag. 9, 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wilkens, M. (1978) in Diffraction and Imaging Techniques in Material Science, 2nd edition (Eds. S. Amelinckx, R. Gevers, and J. Van Landuyt), p. 185, North-Holland, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations