Thickness and Bending Effects

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


We see diffraction contrast in an image of a perfect specimen for two reasons: either the thickness of the specimen varies or the diffraction conditions change across the specimen.


Diffract Beam Wedge Angle Bloch Wave Bragg Condition Anomalous Absorption 
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Specific References

  1. Gibson, J.M., Hull, R., Bean, J.C., Treacy, M.M.J. (1985) Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rackham, G M., Eades, J.A. (1977) Optik 47, 227.Google Scholar
  3. Susnitzky, D.W., Carter, C.B. (1992) J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75, 2463. An overview of the surface morphology of heat-treated ceramic thin films studied using TEM.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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