Using Convergent-Beam Techniques

  • David B. Williams
  • C. Barry Carter


In the preceding chapter we described how to obtain a variety of CBED patterns under various experimental conditions, but always with a focused beam. In this chapter you will find out why these patterns are so useful: they contain a wealth of quantitative data. First, we’ll show how to measure the specimen thickness. Next, we’ll describe the steps for a complete crystallographic analysis of your specimen including determination of its unit cell, crystal system, point group, and space group. Then, we’ll introduce you to methods of determining extremely small changes in lattice parameter which can be used to measure lattice strain and, indirectly, composition. Other convergent-beam techniques are also available, some of which use a somewhat defocused beam, as well as different microdiffraction methods which we will briefly summarize at the end of the chapter.


Point Group Mirror Plane Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction Thickness Determination Laue Zone 
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General References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Williams
    • 1
  • C. Barry Carter
    • 2
  1. 1.Lehigh UniversityBethlehemUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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