Fat and Fat Distribution in Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts

  • Marie-José Borst
  • Willy Pieter
  • Nadeshda Yastrjembskaya
Chapter

Abstract

Contrary to artistic gymnastics, only a few studies exist on rhythmic gymnastics. Some Contrary of them have focused on body composition of these athletes, but none of them has included purpose fat patterning. The purpose of this study was to assess relative body fat and fat patterning in American elite rhythmic gymnasts (n = 16) and to compare pre-menarcheal (mean age ± SEM: 13.30 ± 0.30 year) and post-menarcheal athletes (15.67 ± 0.62 years) on age, height, weight, body fat and fat distribution. In addition to age, height and weight of the athletes, the following skinfolds were taken: triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf. Analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between the pre- and post-menarcheal athletes on age, height, body weight and sum of six skinfolds. The postmenarcheal gymnasts were older and heavier than their pre-menarcheal colleagues. No other differences were found, althoughh the post-menarcheal athletes also had a much higher sum of six skinfolds (55.00 versus 45.65 mm). A larger sample size may have shown the latter difference to be statistically significant as well. When compared to a combined sample of Olympic artistic gymnasts, the rhythmic gymnasts gymnasts had a lower sum of six skinfolds (49.16 versus 51.05mm) and a simalar fat patterning. However, the Olympic gymnasts were also older (17.93 versus 14.19 years ). The older rhythmic gymnasts clearly had more relative body fat than the.Olympic artistic gymnasts, which may be related to the nature of the sport: there are no weight-bearing routines in rhythmic gymnastics.

Keywords

Skinfold Thickness Peak Height Velocity Rhythmic Gymnast Olympic Athlete Subscapular Skinfold 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, M. (1991a), A comparison of physiological characteristics of elite and subelite rhythmic gymnasts, Journal of Human Movement Studies, 20, 2: 49–69.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, M. (1991 b), Physiological characteristics of top ranked rhythmic sportive gymnasts over three years, Journal of Human Movement Studies, 21, 3: 99–127.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, M. (1989), The physiological characteristics of elite rhythmic sportive gymnasts, Journal of Human Movement Studies, 17, 2: 49 – 69.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander, M., Boreskie, S. R. and Law, S. (1987), Heart rate response and time motion analysis of rhythmic sportive gymnastics, Journal of Human Movement Studies, 13, 9: 473 – 489.Google Scholar
  5. Badelon, B., Boulier, A., Fabre, J., Duvallet, A. and Léglise, M. (1985), Bilan rachimétrique des 250 meilleures G.R.S. (gymnastique rythmique et sportive) au cours du XIe Championnat du Monde à Strasbourg. Étude critique, Médecine du Sport, 59, 2: 41–43.Google Scholar
  6. Baumgartner, R. N. and Roche, A. F. (1988), Tracking of fat pattern indices in childhood: The Melbourne Growth Study, Human Biology, 60, 4: 549 –567.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, J. E. L. and Yuhasz, M. S. (1984), Skinfolds and body composition of Olympic athletes, In: J. E. L. Carter (ed.), Physical Structure of Olympic Athletes. Part II, Basel: S. Karger, pp. 144 – 182.Google Scholar
  8. Case, S., Fleck, S. and Koehler, P. (1980), Physiological and performance characteristics of the 1979 U.S. MRG team, International Gymnast, 22, 4: TS 10 – 11 (Technical Supplement vol 1, no. 2).Google Scholar
  9. Dyhre-Poulsen, P. (1987), An analysis of splits leaps and gymnastic skill by physiological recordings, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 4: 390 – 397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frisch, R. E. (1987), Body fat, menarche, fitness and fertility, Human Reproduction, 2, 6: 521 – 533.Google Scholar
  11. Gionet, N., Babineau, C. and Bryant, D. (1986), Anthropometric and flexibility evaluation on young elite rhythmic sportive gymnasts, Canadian Journal of Sport Sciences, 11, 3: 15P.Google Scholar
  12. Heinß, M. (1987), Die Erfassung von Wettkampfübungen mit Hilfe graphischer Zeichen — eine Möglichkeit zur Erhöhung der Objektivität der ästhetischen Bewertung von Leistungen in der Rhythmischen Sportgymnastik, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Deutschen Hochschule für Körperkultur Leipzig, 28, 1: 46 – 55.Google Scholar
  13. Heinß, M. (1983), Zeichentheoretische Ansätze einer Methodenentwicklung zur weitern Objektivierung der Diagnose von Wettkampfübungen der Rhythmischen Sportgymnastik, Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Deutschen Hochschule für Körperkultur Leipzig, 24, 2: 75 – 86.Google Scholar
  14. Imhof, U. (1986), Telemetrische Herzfrequenzmessungen in der Rhythmischen Sportgymnastik, Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, 34, 2: 73 – 76.Google Scholar
  15. Kaplowitz, H. J., Mueller, W. H., Selwyn, B. J., Malina, R. M., Bailey, D. A. and Mirwald, R. L. (1987), Sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values of simple indices of body fat distribution, Human Biology, 59, 5: 809 – 825.Google Scholar
  16. Lindboe, C. F. and Slettebø, M. (1984), Are young female gymnasts malnourished? European Journal of Applied Physiology, 52, 4: 457 – 462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malina, R. M. (1988), Growth and maturation of young athletes: biological and social considerations, in F. L. Smoll, R. A. Magill and M. J. Ash (eds.), Children in Sport, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books, pp. 83 – 101.Google Scholar
  18. Malina, R. M. and Bouchard, C. (1991), Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.Google Scholar
  19. Malina, R. M., Meleski, B. W. and Shoup, R. F. (1982), Anthropometric, body composition, and maturity characteristics of selected school-age athletes, Pediatric Clinics of North America, 29, 6: 1305 – 1323.Google Scholar
  20. Plowman, S. A., Liu, N. Y. and Wells, C. L. (1991), Body composition and sexual maturation in premenarcheal athletes and nonathletes, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 1: 23 – 29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rasim, M. (1982), Die fettfreie Körpermasse bei deutschen und japanischen Kunstturnern und Kunstturnerinnen sowie deutschen Sportlerinnen in der Rhythmischen Sportgymnastik der nationalen Spitzenklasse, Leistungssport, 12, 1: 67 – 80.Google Scholar
  22. Ross, W. and Marfell-Jones, M. (1991), Kinanthropometry, In J. D. MacDougall, H. A. Wenger and H. J. Green (eds.), Physiological testing of the High-Performance Athlete, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books, pp. 223 – 308.Google Scholar
  23. Scheele, K., Rettenmeyer, A., Herzog, W., Steinbrück, K. and Weicker, H. (1978), Die organische Leistungsfähigkeit in den kompositorischen Sportarten, Österreichisches Journal für Sportmedizin, 8, 3: 5 – 8.Google Scholar
  24. Shimotaka, H., Tobin, J. D., Muller, D. C., Elahi, D., Coon, P. J. and Andres, R. (1989) Studies in the distribution of body fat: I. Effects of age, sex, and obesity, Journal of Gerontology, 44, M66 – 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yastrjembskaya, N. M. and Pieter, W. (1995), Element complexity: basis for the construction of a method of evaluation in rhythmic gymnastics, submitted for publication.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-José Borst
    • 1
  • Willy Pieter
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nadeshda Yastrjembskaya
    • 4
  1. 1.SYNTEX B.V.RijswijkThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Lesgaft State Academy of Physical CultureSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Center for Research and CommunicationMetro ManilaPhilippines
  4. 4.Kaliningrad State UniversityKaliningradRussia

Personalised recommendations