Ergogenic Effects of the Creatine Supplementation During the Training of Top-Class Athletes

  • Nikolai I. Volkov
  • Egon R. Andris
  • Yurij M. Saveljev
  • Vladimir I. Olejnikov
Chapter

Abstract

Application of the creatine and creatine phosphate in the preparation of athletes causes marked ergogenic and anabolic effect (2, 13, 16, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25). The exogenic creatine moves rather easily across the cell membrane (7, 8) and can change markedly the intracellular creatine pool. The permeability of cell membranes for the exogenic creatine phosphate is considerably lower but it can cause an increase in the premembrane pool of macroergs that in its turn contributes to maintaining a high bioelectric activity of the excited cells under conditions of hypoxia (9, 17).

Keywords

Creatine Phosphate Training Load Creatine Supplementation Amino Acid Mixture Ergogenic Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen K.L., R.J. Shephard, H. Derolin, E. Varrauskas, R. Masironi. Fundamentals of exercise testing. Geneva: WHO, 1971, 133 pp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andris E.R., Yu.M. Saveljev, N.I. Volkov Use of creatine preparations for the enhancing of physical work capacity of sportsmen and potentiating training effect of exercise. In: Pharmacological correction of hypoxic states. Abstr. of the All-Union Conf., January 24–28, 1988, Moscow, p.6–7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barker S.B., W.H. Summerson. The colorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. . J. Biol. Chem. 138: 535–542, 1941.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bessman S.P., C.L. Carpenter. The creatine—creatine phosphate energy shuttle. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 54: 831–862, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bessman S.P., F. Savabi. The vole of the phosphocreatine energy shuttle in exercise and muscle hypertrophy. In: International Series on Sports Sciences, edited by A.W. Tylor, P.D. Gollnick, H.J. Green, C.D. Januzzo, E.Y. Noble, Y. Metivier, J.R. Sutton. Champaign, In.: Human Kinetics, 1990, v.21, p.167–178.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crim M.C., D.H. Calloway, S. Margen. Creatine metabolism in men: creatin pool size and turnover in relation to creatine intake. J.Nutr. 106: 371–381, 1976.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fitch C.D., R.P. Shields. Creatine metabolism in skeletal muscle F. Creatine movement across muscle membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 241: 3611–3614, 1966.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fitch C.D., R.P. Shields, W. Payne, J.M. Dacus. Creatine metabolism in skeletal muscle. III. Specificity of the creatine entry process. J. Biol. Chem. 243: 2024–2027, 1968.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gattuso C. Fosfocreatine ed eccitabilita neuromuscolare. Minerva medica Siciliana, 1965, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harris R., K. Soderlund, E. Hultman. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clinical Science, 83: 367–374, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kammermeier H. Why do cells need phosphocreatine and a phosphocreatine shuttle? J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 19: 115–118, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Katch V., A. Weltman, R. Martin, L. Grey. Optimal test characteristics for maximal anaerobic work on the biajcle ergometer. Res.Quart. No 2: 263--276, 1977.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marcenaro A., R. Balestreri, F. Basso. L’influenza del trattamento confosfocreatine sul reudimento energetics della respiratzione e sul lavono aerobico massimo. Arch., “E.Maragliano” patol. e clin. 18: 155–163, 1962.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Margaria R. An outline for setting significant tests of mascular performance. Arch. fisiol. 64: 37–44, 1965.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mellerowicz H., V.N. Smodlaka (Editors). Ergometry: Basics of Medical Exercise Testing. Berlin: Urban u. Schwarzenberg Med. Publ., 1981, 432 pp.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Olejnikov V.I. Efficiency of application physical loads in training of short distance runners with using special aids. Dissertation Abstr., Moscow, 1989, 13 pp.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saks V.A., Yu.G. Bobkov, E. Strumia (Editors). Creatine phosphate: biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical efficiency. Torino: Ed. Minerva medica, 1987, 270 pp.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saveljev Yu. M. Efficiency of strength and power training of athletes by application special aids. Dissertation Abstr., Omsk. 1993, 18 pp.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shephard R.J. Standard tests of aerobic power. In: Frontiers of fitness, edited by R.J. Shphard—Springfield: Ch. Thomas, 1978, p. 233–264.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Silver M.L., V.N. Litvinova, B.I. Morosov, A.V. Pliskin, A.I. Pshendin, V.A. Rogozkin. Effect of creatine on protein and relonucleic acid synthesis in embryonic chicken myoblasts. In: Materials All-Union Symposium “Biochemical Pathways of Enhancing Sports Training Efficiency”. Leningrad; Research Institute of Physical Culture, 1974, p.110–116.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Szogy A., G. Cherebetiu. Minutentest auf dem Fakrradergometen zur Bestimmung der anaeroben Karazitat. Europ. J.appl. Physical. 33: 171–176, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Volkov N.I. Tests and criterion’s for assessment of endures. Moscow, RIO GCOLIFK, 1989, 44 p.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Volkov N.I. Use of creatine preparations and amino acid mixtures for potentiating the training effect of exercise. In: Materials All-Union Symposium “Hutrition and physical work capacity”. Leningrad: Research Institute of Physical Culture, 1991, p.126–134.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Volkov N.I., V.I. Olejnikov. Use of creatine preparations for enhancing the training efficiency in short distance running. In: Factors limiting and enhancing physical work capacity of elite sportsmen, edited by M.A. Godik, A.N. Korobov. Moscow, GCOLIFK, 1985, p.204–210.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Volkov N.I., Yu. M. Saveljev, E.R. Andris, N.D. Altukhov. Application if creatine and amino acid for enhancing physical work capacity and training efficiency in sports. Moscow, GCOLIFK, 34 pp.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Volkov N.I., Ye.A. Shirkovetz. About the energetical criterions of physical work capacity of athletes. In: Bioenergetics. Leningrad, 1973, p.18–30.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wolkow, N.I. Bioenergetyczne podstawy i’ ocena wytrzymatosci. Sport Wyczynowy, 27, Nr.7–8, s.7–18, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolai I. Volkov
    • 1
  • Egon R. Andris
    • 1
  • Yurij M. Saveljev
    • 1
  • Vladimir I. Olejnikov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryRussian Academy of Physical EducationMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations