Mental Relaxation—Neuro-Dynamic Markers and Psychophysiological Mechanisms

  • P. Bundzen
  • P. Leisner
  • A. Malinin
  • L.-E. Uneståhl


In the last few years there have been more active attempts at studying the neurophysiological mechanisms of consciousness and, in particular, alternative states of consciousness that are formed under the conditions of hypnosis, self-hypnosis and mental relaxation (Grawford et al., 1989; Lebedeva, Dobronravova, 1990; Sabourin et al., 1990; Bundzen, Uneståhl, 1994). It’s progress is determined not only by the level of the development of modern neuro-science, but also by the problems that the practice brings.


Alternative State Mental Training Muscular Relaxation LASe Pattern Psychical State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bechtereva, N. P., Bundzen, P. V., Gogolitsin, Yu. L., Malyshev, V. N., Perepelkin, P. D., 1979, Neurophysiological codes of words in subcortical structures of the human brain. Brain and Language 7:145–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bendjukov, M., Emelianov, V., 1993, Diagnostics of induction of alternative state of consciousness via mental training, In: “Mental Training in Sport and Life in Russia”, Orebro, Sweden:20–21.Google Scholar
  3. Bulkin, V., Ershova, E., Golovin, B. et al., 1994, Motor-psychic provision of high level athlets activity, Intern. conf. “Current Research into sport science”, Saint-Petersburg :92–93.Google Scholar
  4. Bundzen, P., 1978, Some methodological problems of the deciphering of psychical phenomena brain codes, Question of Philosophy 9:83–92.Google Scholar
  5. Bundzen, P., 1981, Neuro-dynamic correlates of taking decisions. Abstract of dissertation, Leningrad, 38 p.Google Scholar
  6. Bundzen, P., Uneståhl, L.-E., 1994, Thinking with image in alternative state of consciousness — neurodinamic markers. The Intern. Symposium “Psychological and Biochemical Basis of Brain Activity” June, St.Petersburg :15.Google Scholar
  7. Carwford, H. J., Clark, S. W., Kitner-Triolo, M., 1989, EEG activity pattern differences in low and high hypnotizables: reflection of strategy differences? Int. J. Psychophysiology 7:165–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hawkes, Ch., 1992, Endorphins: The basis of pleasure? J. of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 55:247–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Isakov, V., 1994, Alteration of the level of cortisol in blood serum, pain feeling and psychoemotional status under the influence of mnental relaxation, Abstracts of sci. conf., Saint-Petersburg, Res.Inst. of Phys. Cul.:37–38.Google Scholar
  10. Kolb, B. and Whishaw, I., 1990, The Frontal Lobes. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology., 3rd Edn., Freeman and Co., New York:463–501.Google Scholar
  11. Kupalov, P., 1963, Study on the reflex and reflex activity and perspectives of its development, In: Philosophical question of the physiology of higher nervous activity and psychology, Moscow:106.Google Scholar
  12. Lebedeva, N., Dobronravova, I. 1990, Organiztion of human EEG rhytmus by special states of consciousness, J. of Higher Nervous Activity 40(6):951–962.Google Scholar
  13. Lurija, A., 1973, Principles of neuropsychology, Moscow.Google Scholar
  14. Miller, R., 1989, Cortico-hippocampal lnterplay: Set-organization Phase-locked Loops for Indexing Memory, Psychobiology 17:115–128.Google Scholar
  15. Mishlayev, S., 1993, Hypnosis. Personal influence? N.Novgorod:286 p.Google Scholar
  16. Pavio, A., 1978, Imagery, Language and semantic Memory. Int. J. Psycholinguistics 5:329–342.Google Scholar
  17. Pavlova, L., Romanenko, A., 1988, Systemic approach to psychophysiological investigation of human brain, Leningrad, Nauka.Google Scholar
  18. Petche, H., Lacroix, D., Linder, K., Rappelsberger, P., Sonmidt-Heinrich, E., 1992, Thinking With Images or Thinking With Language: A Pilot EEG Probability Mapping Study, Int. J. of Psychophysiology 12:31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pribram, K., 1975, Languages of brain, Moscow.Google Scholar
  20. Rabinovitch, M., 1975, Neurophysiological mechanisms of conditioned reflex, Physiology of man and animals, Moscow 16:5–58.Google Scholar
  21. Roschmann, R., Wittling, W., 1992, Topographic Brain Mapping of Emotionrelated Hemisphere Asymmetries, Int. J. Neurosciences 63:5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sabourin, M., Cutcomb, S., Drawford, G., Pribram, K., 1990, EEG Correlates of Hypnotic Susceptibility and Hypnotic Trance. Int. J. Psychophysiology 10:125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Silberman, E., Weingartner, H., 1986, Hemispheric Lateralization of Functions Related to Emotion, Brain and Cognition 9:322–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sokolov, E., 1990, Neuro-physiological mechanisms of consciousness, J. of Higher nerv. activ. 40(6):1049–1052.Google Scholar
  25. Spivak, D., 1986, Linguistics of alternative states of consciousness, Leningrad:96.Google Scholar
  26. Sudibyo, S., 1994, Model of mental training based on Javanese method. Intern. conf. “Current Research into sport science”, Saint-Petersburg:17.Google Scholar
  27. Uneståhl, L.-E., 1983. The Mental Aspects of Gymnastics, Veje Forlag, Orebro, Sweden.Google Scholar
  28. Uneståhl, L.-E., 1992. Psychical skills for sport and life, In: “Sport and Health”, Saint-Petersburg:20–28.Google Scholar
  29. Uneståhl, L.-E., Bundzen, P., Bendukov, M., 1994, Psychophysiological Approaches in Mental Resource Training, In.: Intern. Congress on Sports, Helsinki, Finland:4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Bundzen
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Leisner
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Malinin
    • 1
    • 2
  • L.-E. Uneståhl
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Physical CultureSt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Scandinavian International UniversityOrebroSweden

Personalised recommendations