Concepts for bandgap References and voltage measurement systems

  • Gerard C. M. Meijer


This paper gives a review of the concepts and basic problems of bandgap References. It deals with the temperature dependence of the I C (V BE ) characteristics of bipolar transistors, and methods to compensate for this temperature dependence for application in accurate bandgap References. Methods and technologies to calibrate bandgap References are discussed. As case studies, two types of bandgap References are discussed. One of them is implemented in bipolar technology, the other one in CMOS technology. A novel type of bandgap reference, the so-called dynamic bandgap reference, is presented. This bandgap reference is particularly useful for CMOS measurement systems, where it can improve the accuracy of the system. Some basic problems for the accuracy of bandgap References are discussed.


Output Voltage Temperature Coefficient Bipolar Transistor Current Mirror Bandgap Reference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard C. M. Meijer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftNetherlands

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