Virtual Reality

  • Christine R. Curran
  • Gary D. Hales
Part of the Health Informatics book series (HI)


Virtual reality has been described as the ultimate human-computer interface (Arthur, 1992). It attempts to eliminate the boundary between the user and the computer and to provide a means for interacting and processing information naturally and intuitively. It is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate, and interact with extremely complex data via a computer-generated environment (Aukstakalnis and Blatner, 1992). Virtual reality was pioneered about 30 years ago when Ivan Sutherland, a computer scientist, built his own head-mounted display (Antonoff, 1993). The term “virtual reality” was coined in the mid-1980s by Jaron Lanier, founder of VPL Research, Inc., in Foster City, California (the first company dedicated to virtual reality environments) (Hamilton, Smith, McWilliams, Schwartz, and Carey, 1992). While “virtual reality” is the popular term, some authors and researchers prefer terms such as “immersive simulation,” “artificial reality,” “telepresence,” “virtual world,” “cyberspace,” or “virtual environment” to label the concept (Peterson, 1992a).


Virtual Reality Virtual World Motion Sickness Virtual Patient Virtual Reality System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Antonoff M: Living in a virtual world. Popular Science 1993; 242: 83–86, 124–125.Google Scholar
  2. Arthur C: Did reality move for you? New Scientist 1992; 134: 22–27.Google Scholar
  3. Aukstakalnis S, Blatner D: Silicon Mirage: The Art and Science of Virtual Reality. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Bains S: Surgeons slice virtual leg. New Scientist 1991; 131: 28.Google Scholar
  5. Bylinsky G: The marvels of virtual reality. Fortune 1991;123(11):138–139,142,146, 150.Google Scholar
  6. Dutton G: A virtual operating system to handle virtually anything. IEEE Software 1992; 9: 100–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grimes J: Virtual reality 91 anticipates future reality. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications 1991; 11: 81–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hamilton JO, Smith ET, McWilliams G, Schwartz EI, Carey J: Virtual reality: How a computer-generated world could change the real world. Business Week 1992; October 5: 97–105.Google Scholar
  9. Hedberg S: See, hear, learn. Byte 1993; 18: 119,121,123,125,127–128.Google Scholar
  10. Pausch R: Three views of virtual reality. Computer 1993; 26(2): 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Peterson I: Looking-glass worlds. Science News 1992a; 141: 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Peterson I: Wizard of Oz: Bringing drama to virtual reality. Science News 1992b; 142: 440–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rheingold H: Virtual Reality. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.Google Scholar
  14. Staggers N, Parks PA: Collaboration between unlikely disciplines in the creation of a conceptual framework for nurse-computer interactions. In: Frisse, ME, ed. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993a; 661–665.Google Scholar
  15. Staggers N, Parks PA: Description and initial application of the Staggers & Parks Nurse-Computer Interaction Framework. Computers in Nursing 1993b; 11(6): 282–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Stix G: See-through view. Scientific American 1992; 267: 166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine R. Curran
  • Gary D. Hales

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations