Life History Variation Among Nocturnal Prosimians

  • Peter M. Kappeler
Chapter

Abstract

Principal life history traits determine the size of an organism at birth, how fast and how long it will grow, at what age and size it will mature, the number, size and sex of its offspring, as well as its reproductive and total life span. These traits are connected by numerous trade-offs, involving differential allocation of energy to growth, maintenance and reproduction. Because interactions among life history traits result in phenotypic adaptations that determine individual fitness through their direct effect on survival and reproduction, life histories are the key to understanding the action of natural selection (Gadgil and Bossert, 1970; Stearns, 1976, 1992).

Keywords

Life History Basal Metabolic Rate Brain Size Life History Strategy Reproductive Trait 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allman, J., McLaughlin, T., & Hakeem, A. (1993). Brain weight and life span in primate species. Procedings of the Natliona Academy of Science USA 90, 118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, E. (1985). Relative brain size in monkeys and prosimians. American Journal of Physical Anthrovology 66, 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauchot, R., & Stephan, H. (1966). Données nouvelles sur l’éncephalisation des insectivores et des prosimiens. Mammalia 30, 160–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bearder, S. K. (1987). Lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers: diverse societies in solitary foragers. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp.11–24). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Boyce, M. S. (1979). Seasonality and patterns of natural selection for life histories. American Naturalist 114, 569–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyce, M. S. (1988). Evolution of life histories: theory and patterns from mammals. In M. S. Boyce (Ed.), Evolution of life histories of mammals (pp.3–30). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Case, T. J. (1978). On the evolution and adaptive significance of post-natal growth rates in terrestrial vertebrates. Quarterly Review of Biology 53, 243–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman, C. A., Walker, S., & Lefebvre, L. (1990). Reproductive strategies of primates: the influence of body size and diet on litter size. Primates 31, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charles-Dominique, P. (1977). Ecology and behaviour of nocturnal primates. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Charles-Dominique, P., Cooper, H. M., Hladik, A., Hladik, C. M., Pages, E., Pariente, G. F., Petter-Rousseaux, A., Petter, J.-J., & Schilling, A. (Eds.) (1980). Nocturnal Malagasy Primates: Ecology, Physiology and Behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cleveland, W. S. (1979). Robust locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplots. Journal of the American Statistical Association 74, 829–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cole, L. C. (1954). The population consequences of life history phenomena. Quarterly Review of Biology 29, 103–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crovella, S., Montagnon, D., & Rumpler, Y. (1993). Highly repeated DNA analysis and systematics of the Lemuridae, a family of Malagasy prosimians. Primates 34, 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dixson, A. F., & van Horn, R. (1977). Comparative studies of morphology and reproduction in two subspecies of the greater bushbaby Galago crassicaudatus crassicaudatus and Galago crassicaudatus argentatus. Journal of Zoology, London 183, 517–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobler, H. J. (1982). Temperaturregulation und Sauerstoffverbrauch beim Senegal- und Zwerggalago (Galago senegalensis, Galago demidovii). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 33, 33–59.Google Scholar
  16. Doyle, G. A., Andersson, A., & Bearder, S. K. (1971). Reproduction in the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis moholi) under semi-natural conditions. Folia Primatologica 14, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doyle, G.A. (1979). Development of behavior in prosimians with special reference to the lesser bushbaby, Galago senegalensis moholi. In G.A. Doyle & R.D. Martin (Eds.),The Study of Prosimian Behavior (pp.157–206). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Eaglen, R. H., & Simons, E. L. (1980). Notes on the breeding biology of thick-tailed and silvery galagos in captivity. Journal of Mammalogy 61, 534–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Felsenstein, J. (1985). Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist 125, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foerg, R. (1982). Reproduction in Cheirogaleus medius. Folia Primatologica 39, 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gadgil, M., & Bossert, W. H. (1970). Life historical consequences of natural selection. American Naturalist 104, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garland, T., Harvey, P. H., & Ives, A. R. (1992). Procedures for the analysis of comparative data using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Systematic Biology 41, 18–32.Google Scholar
  23. Gittleman, J. L., & Oftedal, O. T. (1987). Comparative growth and lactation energetics in carnivores. Symposia of the Zoological Society, London 57, 41–77.Google Scholar
  24. Goodman, S. M., O’Connor, S., & Langrand, O. (1993). A review of predation on lemurs: implications for the evolution of social behavior in small, nocturnal primates. In P. M. Kappeler & J. U. Ganzhorn (Eds.), Lemur social systems and their ecological basis (pp.51–66). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  25. Grafen, A. (1989). The phylogenetic regression. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 326, 119–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grafen, A. (1992). The uniqueness of the phylogenetic regression. Journal of theoretical Biology 156, 405–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harcourt, C. S. (1986). Galago zanzibaricus: birth seasonality, litter size and perinatal behaviour of females. Journal of Zoology, London 210, 451–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haring, D. M., & Wright, P. C. (1989). Hand-raising a Phillipine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta. Zoo Biology 8, 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harvey, P. H., & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1985). Life history variation in primates. Evolution 39, 559–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harvey, P. H., & Keymer, A. E. (1991). Comparing life histories using phylogenies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 332, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey, P. H., & Krebs, J. R. (1990). Comparing brains. Science 249, 140–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harvey, P. H., Martin, R. D., & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1987). Life histories in comparative perspective. In B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp.181–196). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Harvey, P. H., & Pagel, M. D. (1991). The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Harvey, P. H., Pagel, M. D., & Rees, J. (1991). Mammalian metabolism and life histories. American Naturalist 37, 556–566.Google Scholar
  35. Harvey, P. H., Promislow, D. E. L., & Read, A. F. (1989). Causes and correlates of life history differences among mammals. In V. Standen & R. A. Foley (Eds.), Comparative socioecology (pp.305–318). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  36. Harvey, P. H., & Purvis, A. (1991). Comparative methods for explaining adaptations. Nature 351, 619–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harvey, P. H., & Read, A. F. (1988). How and why do mammalian life histories vary? In M. S. Boyce (Ed.), Evolution of life histories of mammals (pp.213–232). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Harvey, P. H., Read, A. F., & Promislow, D. E. L. (1989). Life history variation in placental mammals: unifying the data with theory. In P. H. Harvey & L. Partridge (Eds.), Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology (pp.13–31). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Harvey, P. H., & Zammuto, R. M. (1985). Patterns of mortality and age at first reproduction in natural populations of mammals. Nature 315, 319–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hennemann, W. W. (1983). Relationship among body mass, metabolic rate, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase in mammals. Oecologia 56, 104–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hildwein, G., & Goffart, M. (1975). Standard metabolism and thermoregulation in a prosimian. Perodicticus potto. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 50A, 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hladik, A. (1980). The dry forest of the west coast of Madagascar: climate, phenology, and food available for prosimians. In P. Charles-Dominique, H. M. Cooper, A. Hladik, C. M. Hladik, E. Pages, G. F. Pariente, A. Petter-Rousseaux, J.-J. Petter & A. Schilling (Eds.), Nocturnal malagasy primates: ecology, physiology, and behavior (pp.3–40). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hladik, C. M., Charles-Dominique, P., & Petter, J.-J. (1980). Feeding strategies of five nocturnal prosimians in the dry forest of the west coast of Madagascar. In P. Charles-Dominique, H. M. Cooper, A. Hladik, C. M. Hladik, E. Pages, G. F. Pariente, A. Petter-Rousseaux, J.-J. Petter & A. Schilling (Eds.), Nocturnal malagasy primates: ecology, physiology, and behavior (pp.41–73). New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  44. Ishak, B., Warter, S., Dutrillaux, B., & Rumpler, Y. (1988). Phylogenetic relation between Lepilemuridae and other lemuriform families. American Journal of Primatology 15 275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ishak, B., Warter, S., Dutrillaux, B., & Rumpler, Y. (1992). Chromosomal rearrangements and speciation of sportive lemurs (Lepilemur species). Folia Primatologica 58, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Izard, M. K. (1987). Lactation length in three species of Galago. American Journal of Primatologv 13, 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Izard, M. K., & Nash, L. T. (1988). Contrasting reproductive parameters in Galago senegalensis braccatus andGalago senegalensis moholi. International Journal of Primatology 9, 519–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Izard, M. K., & Rasmussen, D. T. (1985). Reproduction in the slender loris, Loris tardigradus malabaricus. American Journal of Primatology 8, 153–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Izard, M. K., & Simons, E. L. (1986). Infant survival and litter size in primigravid and multigravid Galagos. Journal of Medical Primatology 15, 27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Izard, M. K., Weisenseel, K. A., & Ange, R. L. (1988). Reproduction in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). American Journal of Primatology 16, 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Izard, M. K., Wright, P. C., & Simons, E. L. (1985). Gestation length in Tarsius bancanus. American Journal of Primatology 9, 327–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jung, K. Y., Crovella, S., & Rumpler, Y. (1992). Phylogenetic relationships among lemuriform species determined from restriction genomic DNA banding patterns. Folia Primatologica 58, 224–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kappeler, P. M. (1991). Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates. Folia Primatologica 57, 132–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kappeler, P. M. (1992). Female dominance in Malagasy primates. Ph.D. Thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  55. Kihlstrom, J. E. (1972). Period of gestation and body weight in some placental mammals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 43A, 673–679.Google Scholar
  56. Kirkwood, J. K., (1985). Patterns of growth in primates. Journal of Zoology, London 205, 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kurland, J. A., & Pearson, J. D. (1986). Ecological significance of hypometabolism in nonhuman primates: allometry, adaptation, and deviant diets. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 71, 445–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leutenegger, W. (1973). Maternal-fetal weight relationships in primates. Folia Primatologica 20, 280–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lynch, M. (1991). Methods for the analysis of comparative data in evolutionary biology. Evolution 45, 1065–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McCormick, S. A. (1981). Oxygen consumption and torpor in the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius): rethinking prosimian metabolism. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A68, 605–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McNab, B. K. (1980). Food habits, energetics, and the population biology of mammals. American Naturalist 116 106–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McNab, B. K. (1986a). The influence of food habits on the energetics of eutherian mammals. Ecological Monog raphs 56 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McNab, B. K. (1986b) Food habits, energetics, and the reproduction of marsupials. Journal of Zoology, London 208. 595–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McNab, B. K. (1988). Complications inherent in scaling the basal rate of metabolism in mammals. Quarterly Review of Biology 63, 25–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McNab, B. K., & Wright, P. C. (1987). Temperature regulation and oxygen consumption in the Phillipine tarsier,Tarsius syrichta. Physiological Zoology 60, 596–600.Google Scholar
  66. MacKinnon, J., & MacKinnon, K. (1980). The behavior of wild spectral tarsiers. International Journal of Primatology 1, 361–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin, R. D. (1981). Relative brain size and basal metabolic rate in terrestrial vertebrates. Nature 293, 56–60.Google Scholar
  68. Martin, R. D. (1984). Scaling effects and adaptive strategies in mammalian lactation. Symposia of tne Zoological Society, London 51, 87–117.Google Scholar
  69. Martin, R. D. (1990). Primate origins and evolution. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  70. Martin, R. D., & MacLarnon, A. M. (1985). Gestation period, neonatal size, and maternal investment in placental mammals. Nature 313, 220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martin, R. D., & MacLarnon, A. M. (1988). Comparative quantitative studies of growth and reproduction. Symposia of the Zoological Society, London 60, 39–80.Google Scholar
  72. Michod, R. E. (1979). Evolution of life histories in response to age-specific mortality factors. American Naturalist 113, 531–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Millar, J. S. (1977). Adaptive features of mammalian reproduction. Evolution 31:370–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Millar, J. S. (1981). Pre-partum reproductive characteristics of eutherian mammals.Evolution 35, 1149–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Millar, J. S. (1984). The role of design constraints in the evolution of mammalian reproductive rates. Acta Zoologica Fennica 171, 133–136.Google Scholar
  76. Millar, J. S., & Zammuto, R. M. (1983). Life histories of mammals: an analysis of life tables. Ecology 64, 631–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moses, L. E., Gale, L. C., & Altmann, J. (1992). Methods for the analysis of unbalanced, longitudinal growth data. American Journal of Primatology 28, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Müller, E. F. (1979). Energy metabolism, thermoregulation and water budget in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 64A, 109–119.Google Scholar
  79. Müller, E. F. (1983). Thermoregulation and energy budget of prosimians. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 34, 29–71Google Scholar
  80. Müller, E. F. (1985). Basal metabolic rates in primates: the possible role of phylogenetic and ecological factors. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A81, 707–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Müller, E. F., & Jaksche, H. (1980). Thermoregulation, oxygen consumption, heart rate and evaporative water loss in the thick-tailed bushbaby (Galago crassicaudatus). Zeitschriftfür Säugetierkunde 45, 269–278.Google Scholar
  82. Müller, E. F., Nieschalk, U., & Meier, B. (1985). Thermoregulation in the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). Folia Primatologica 44, 216–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nash, L. T. (1983). Reproductive patterns in galagos (Galago zanzibaricus and Galago garnetti) in relation to climatic variability. American Journal of Primatology 5, 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nicoll, M. E., & Thompson, S. D. (1987). Basal metabolic rates and energetics of reproduction in therian mammals: marsupials and placentals compared. Symposia of the Zoological Society, London 57, 7–28.Google Scholar
  85. Niemitz, C. (1984). Biology of tarsiers. New York; Fischer.Google Scholar
  86. Niemitz, C., Nietsch, A., Warter, S., & Rumpler, Y. (1991). Tarsius dianae: a new primate species from Central Sulawesi (Indonesia). Folia Primatologica 56, 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pagel, M. D. (1992). A method for the analysis of comparative data. Journal of theoretical Biology 156, 431–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pagel, M. D., & Harvey, P. H. (1989). Taxonomic differences in the scaling of brain on body weight among mammals. Science 244, 1589–1593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Partridge, L., & Harvey, P. H. (1988). The ecological context of life history evolution. Science 241, 1449–1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Partridge, L., & Sibly, R. (1991). Constraints in the evolution of life histories. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 332, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Petter-Rousseaux, A. (1962). Recherche sur la biologie de la réproduction des primates inferieurs. Mammalia 26 Suppl.1, 1–88.Google Scholar
  92. Pianka, E. R. (1970). On r- and K-selection. American Naturalist 104, 592–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pianka, E. L., & Parker, W. S. (1975). Age-specific reproductive tactics. American Naturalist 109, 453–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pontier, D., Gaillard, J. M., & Allainé, D. (1993). Maternal investment per offspring and demographic tactics in placental mammals. Oikos 66, 424–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Promislow, D. E. L., & Harvey, P. H. (1990). Living fast and dying young: A comparative analysis of lifehistory variation among mammals. Journal of Zoology, London 220, 417–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rasmussen, D. T. (1986). Life history and behavior of slow lorises and slender lorises: implications for the Lorisine-Galagine divergence. Ph.D. Thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  97. Rasmussen, D. T., & Izard, M. K. (1988). Scaling of growth and life history traits relative to body size, brain size, and metabolic rate in lorises and galagos (Lorisidae, Primates). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 75, 357–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Read, A. F., & Harvey, P. H. (1989). Life history differences among the eutherian radiations. Journal of Zoology, London 219, 329–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Richard, A. F., & Nicoll, M.E. (1987). Female social dominance and basal metabolism in a Malagasy primate, Propithecus verreauxi. American Journal of Primatology 12, 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ross, C. (1988). The intrinsic rate of natural increase and reproductive effort in primates. Journal of Zoology, London 214, 199–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ross, C. (1991). Life history patterns of New World monkeys. International Journal of Primatology 12, 481–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ross, C. (1992a). Basal matabolic rate, body weight and diet in primates: an evaluation of the evidence. Folia Primatologica 58, 7–23.Google Scholar
  103. Ross, C. (1992b). Environmental correlates of the intrinsic rate of natural increase in primates. Oecologia 90, 383–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rumpler, Y., & Dutrillaux, B. (1986). Evolution chromosomique des prosimiens. Mammalia 50, 82–107.Google Scholar
  105. Rumpler, Y., Warter, S., Rabarivola, C., Petter, J. J., & Dutrillaux, B. (1990). Chromosomal evolution in Malagasy lemurs: XII. Chromosomal banding study of Avahi laniger occidentalis (Syn: Lichanotus laniger occidentalis) and cytogenetic data in favour of its classification in a species apart — Avahi occidentalis. American Journal of Primatology 21, 307–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sacher, G. A., & Staffeldt, E. F. (1974). Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. American Naturalist 108, 593–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sokal, R. R., & Rohlf, F. J. (1981). Biometry. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  108. Stephan, H., & Bauchot, R. (1965). Hirn-Körpergewichtsbeziehungen bei den Halbaffen (Prosimii). Acta Zoologica XLVI, 209–231.Google Scholar
  109. Stearns, S. C. (1976). Life-history tactics: a review of the ideas. Quarterly Review of Biology 51, 3–47.Google Scholar
  110. Stearns, S. C. (1983). The influence of size and phylogeny on patterns of covariation among life-history traits in the mammals. Oikos 41, 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stearns, S. C. (1992). The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Sutherland, W. J., Grafen, A., & Harvey, P. H. (1986). Life history correlations and demography. Nature 320, 88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Terborgh, J., & Janson, C. H. (1986). The socioecology of primate groups. Annual Reviews in Ecology and Systematics 17, 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. van Horn, R. N., & Eaton, G.G. (1979). Reproductive physiology and behavior in prosimians. In G.A. Doyle & Martin, R. D. (Eds.), The study ofprosimian behavior (pp.79–122). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  115. van Schaik, C. P. (1983). Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87. 120–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. van Schaik, C. P., & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1983). On the ultimate causes of primate social systems. Behaviour 85, 91–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Western, D. (1979). Size, life history and ecology in mammals. African Journal of Ecology 17, 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Western, D., & Ssemakula, J. (1982). Life history patterns in birds and mammals and their evolutionary significance. Oecologia 54, 281–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Wrignt, P. C., Izard, M. K., & Simons, E. L. (1986). Reproductive cycles in Tarsius bancanus. American Journal of Primatology 11, 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Young, A. L., Richard, A. F. & Aiello, L. C. (1990). Female dominance and maternal investment in strepsirhine primates. American Naturalist 135, 473–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zimmermann, E. (1989). Aspects of reproduction and behavioral and vocal development in Senegal bushbabies (Galago senegalensis). International Journal of Primatology 10, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter M. Kappeler
    • 1
  1. 1.AG Verhaltensforschung/ÖkologieDeutsches PrimatenzentrumGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations