The Madamaghan Sites
Since its discovery in the basin of Wadi Mushabi of northeastern Sinai in the early 1970s (Phillips and Mintz 1977), evidence of the late Epipaleolithic, Mushabian Complex has been found over much of the arid zone of the southern Levant (Bar-Yosef and Belfer-Cohen 1989; Henry 1989). But it has only been in the last decade that Mushabian occurrences have been identified east of the Rift Valley (Henry 1983, 1988; Henry and Garrard 1988; Shen 1992). This recognition of an eastern extension of the complex, the Madamaghan Industry, comes from the discovery of Mushabian occupational horizons in the deposits of the Tor Hamar (J431, Layers A−E1) and Jebel Fatma 0436) rockshelters, both located in the Jebel Qalkha study area (Figure 11.1). Discovery and analyses of assemblages from these deposits also prompted a reconsideration of the taxonomic affiliation of the most recent horizon of the nearby Wadi Madamagh rockshelter located near Petra. Although Kirkbride (1958) referred to this assemblage from Wadi Madamagh as “Micro-Kebaran” (almost 20 years before the Mushabian was first reported in detail), it is clear from her description of microburins, La Mouillah points, and arched-backed bladelets that it is not a Kebaran assemblage at all, but one that fits comfortably within the Mushabian Complex as a whole (Henry 1988, 1989a). When the technotypologic characteristics of these assemblages are compared to those of Sinai and the highland Negev, a clear pattern of regional facies emerges with the Madamaghan Industry representing that of southern Jordan (Henry 1983, 1988, 1989a).
KeywordsWarm Season Rift Valley Arid Zone Water Mist Lithic Assemblage
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