Detection of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) in Leukemia and Lymphoma

  • Jonathan M. Ben-Ezra
Part of the Contemporary Biomedicine book series (CB, volume 12)


The detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in lymphoid tumors by molecular biology techniques is predicated on the fact that these tumors are clonal expansions of lymphoid cells. For decades, the production of a single type of light chain by B-cell neoplasms has been exploited to indicate the monoclonality of a lesion; the clonal immunoglobulin produced by one tumor is unique, and is not exactly the same as that produced by any other B-cell or tumor. This uniqueness of the antibody has its counterpart in the genome as well. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (IgH) is spread out over 2000 kb of chromosome 14. It is divided into several regions, with much distance between the various exons. These regions include (from 5′ to 3′) the variable (V), diversity (D), joining (J), and constant (C) regions of the gene. There are nine functional CH genes and two pseudogenes; the constant regions determine the heavy-chain type (γ, δ, and so forth) of the immunoglobulin. There are six functional JH genes, and over 40 identified D regions organized into eight families. The over 80 VH genes are grouped into seven families, with the different family members being interspersed along the genome.


Polymerase Chain Reaction Polymerase Chain Reaction Product Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Follicular Lymphoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

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  • Jonathan M. Ben-Ezra

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