Low Voltage Low Power Design Techniques for Medical Devices

  • David A. Wayne


Low-power electronics in the medical area include devices such as implantable cardiac pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators, implantable neurological stimulators (mainly for pain relief), implantable muscle stimulation devices, hearing aids, bone conduction amplifiers, tinnitus blockers and cochlear implants. Of these devices, cardiac pacemakers and hearing aids are the most widely used and historically most mature. They also represent the largest market segments. The worldwide pacemaker market was approximately US$ 2 billion in recent years, and that of the hearing aid about US$ 1.5 billion.

Development of these devices, while admittedly mature, is by no means in decline. In both pacemakers and hearing instruments, improvements in electronic technology will yet give rise to significant performance advances. This paper will discuss the current state of development in these two medical devices, and then provide a glimpse towards the future.


Cochlear Implant Cardiac Pacemaker Stimulus Pulse Battery Voltage Dual Chamber Pacemaker 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Wayne
    • 1
  1. 1.Hearing Innovations, Inc.TucsonUSA

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