Mood Disorders

  • Hagop S. Akiskal
  • Charles van Valkenburg


Transient feelings of depression are a universal experience, and depressed mood is easy to recognize. The outward expression or affect of depression is on a continuum with normal experience, and even when a depressive state has a known organic precipitant (e.g., reserpine toxicity), the observable change in affect is usually one more of degree than of quality.


Anxiety Disorder Major Depression Mood Disorder Personality Disorder Depressive Episode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiskal, H. S. (1981). Subaffective disorders: Dysthyrmic, cyclothymic, and bipolar II disorders in the borderline “realm.” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 4, 25–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akiskal, H. S. (1983a). The bipolar spectrum: New concepts in classification and diagnosis. In L. Grinspoon (Ed.), Psychiatry update: The American Psychiatric Association annual review (pp. 271–292). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  4. Akiskal, H. S. (1983b). Diagnosis and classification of affective disorders: New insights from clinical and laboratory approaches. Psychiatric Developments, 1, 123–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Akiskal, H. S. (1983c). Dysthymic disorder: Psychopathology of proposed chronic depressive subtypes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Akiskal, H. S. (1990). Toward a clinical understanding of the relationship of anxiety and depressive disorders. In J. Maser & R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity in anxiety and mood disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  7. Akiskal, H. S. (1992a). Delineating irritable and hyperthymic variants of the cyclothymic temperament. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6, 326–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akiskal, H. S. (1992b). Mood disorders. In R. Berkow (Ed.), Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy (pp. 1592–1614). Rahway, NJ: Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Research Laboratories.Google Scholar
  9. Akiskal, H. S. (1994a). Dysthymic and cyclothymic depressions: T herapeutic considerations. Journal oJ Clinical Psychiatry, 55 (4 suppl.), 46–52.Google Scholar
  10. Akiskal, H. S. (1994b). Mood disturbances. In G. Winokur & P. Clayton (Eds.), Medical basis of psychiatry (pp. 365–379). Philadelphia: WB. Saunders.Google Scholar
  11. Akiskal, H. S., & Akiskal, K. (1988). Re-assessing the prevalence of bipolar disorders: Clinical significance and artistic creativity. Psychiatrie et Psychobiologie, 3, 29s–36s.Google Scholar
  12. Akiskal, H. S., Bitar, A. H., Puzantian, V R., Rosenthal, T. L., & Walker, P. W. (1978). The nosological status of neurotic depression: A prospective three- to four-year follow-up examination in light of the primary—secondary and unipolar—bipolar dichotomies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 756–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Akiskal, H. S., Djenderedjian, A. H., Rosenthal, R. H., & Khani, M. K. (1977). Cyclothymic disorder: Validating criteria for inclusion in the bipolar affective group. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1227–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Akiskal, H. S., Downs, J., Jordan, P., Watson, S., Daugherty, D., & Pruitt, D. B. (1985). Affective disorders in referred children and younger siblings of manic—depressives: Mode of onset and prospective course. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 996–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Akiskal, H. S., Khani, M. K., & Scott-Strauss, A. (1979). Cyclothymic temperamental disorders. Psuchiatric Clinics of North America, 2. 527–554.Google Scholar
  16. Akiskal, H. S., & Lemmi, H. (1987). Sleep EEG findings bearing on the relationship of anxiety and depressive disorders. In G. Racagani & I. Smeraldi (Eds.), Anxious depression: Assessment and treatment (pp. 153–159). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  17. Akiskal, H. S., & McKinney, W. T., Jr. (1975). Overview of recent research in depression: Integration of ten conceptual models into a comprehensive clinical frame. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 285–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Akiskal, H. S., & Puzantian, V. R. (1979). Psychotic forms of depression and mania. Psychiatric Clinics of North American, 2, 419–439.Google Scholar
  19. Akiskal, H. S., Rosenthal, T. L., Haykal, R. E, Lemmi, H., Rosenthal, R. H., & Scott-Strauss, A. (1980). Characterological depressions: Clinical and sleep EEG findings separating “subaffective dysthymias” from “character spectrum disorders.” Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 777–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Akiskal, H. S., Walker, P., Puzantian, V. R., King, D., Rosenthal, T. L, & Dranon, M. (1983). Bipolar outcome in the course of depressive illness: Phenomenologic, familial, and pharmacologic predictors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 5, 115–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Akiskal, H. S., & Webb, W. L. (Eds.) (1978). Psychiatric diagnosis: Exploration of biological predictors. New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  22. Akiskal, H. S., & Weise, R. E. (1992). The clinical spectrum of so-called “minor” depression. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 46, 9–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Akiskal, H. S., Yerevanian, B. I., Davis, G. C., King, D. & Lemmi, H. (1985). The nosologic status of borderline personality: Clinical and polysomnographic study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 192–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Andreasen, N. J., & Canter, A. (1974). The creative writer: Psychiatric symptoms and family history. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 15, 123–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  26. Ban, T. A. (1989). Composite diagnostic evaluation of depressive disorders. Brentwood, TN: JM Productions.Google Scholar
  27. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  28. Carroll, B. J. (1982). Clinical applications of the dexamethasone suppression test for endogenous depression. Pharmacopsychiatria, 15, 19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cassano, G. B., Akiskal, H. S., Savino, M., Musetti, L., & Perugi, G. (1992). Proposed subtypes of bipolar II and related disorders: With hypomanic episodes (or cyclothymia) and with hyperthymic temperament. Journal of Affective Disorders, 26, 127–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cassano, G. B., Perugi, G., Musetti, L., & Akiskal, H. S. (1989). The nature of depression presenting concomitantly with panic disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30, 473–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Castello, C. G. (1993). Symptoms of depression. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Coryell, W, Endicott, J., Andreasen, N. C., Keller, M. B., Clayton, P. J., Hirschfeld, R. M., Scheftner, W. A., & Winokur, G. (1988). Depression and panic attacks: The significance of overlap as reflected in follow up and family study data. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Davidson, J. R, Miller, R. D., Turnbull, C. D., & Sullivan, J. L. (1982). Atypical depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 527–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Depue, R. A., Slater, J. R., Wolfsetter-Kaush, M., Klein, D., Coplerud, E., & Farr, D. (1981). A. biobehavioral paradigm for identifying persons at risk for bipolar depressive disorders: A conceptual framework and five validation studies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology Monograph, 90, 381–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Jr., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fieve, R. R., & Dunner, D. L. (1975). Unipolar and bipolar affective states.In F. Flach & S. Draghi (Eds.), The nature and treatment of depression (pp. 145–160). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Frank, E., Carpenter, L. L., & Kupfer, D. J. (1988). Sex differences in recurrent depression: Are there any that are significant? American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 41–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Goodwin, D. W, & Guze, S. B. (1989). Psychiatric diagnosis, 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Goodwin, F K., & Jamison, K. R. (1990). Manic-depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale tor depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Himmelhoch, J. M., Mulla, D., Neil, J. F, Detre, T. P., & Kupfer, D. J(1976). Incidence and significance of mixed affective states in a bipolar population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1062–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keller, M. B., Lavori, P. W, Endicott, J., Coryell, W., & Klerman, G. L. (1983). “Double depression”: Twoyear follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 689–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kendler, K. S., Kessler, R. C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1993). The prediction of major depression in women: Toward an integrated etiologic model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1139–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Klein, D. N., Taylor, E. B., Harding, K., & Dickstein, S. (1988). Double depression and episodic major depression: Demographic, clinical, familial, personality, and socioenvironmental characteristics and short-term outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1226–1231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Klerman, G. L., Lavori, P. W., Rice, J., Reich, T., Endicott, J., Andreasen, N. C., Keller, M. B., & Hirschfeld, R. M. (1985). Birth-cohort trends in rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 689–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kraepelin, E. (1921). Manic-depressive insanity and paranoia (G. M. Robertson, Ed., & R. M. Barclay, Trans.). Edinburgh: E. S. Livingstone.Google Scholar
  47. Kupfer, D J., Pickar, D., Himmelhoch, J. M., & Detre, T. P. (1975). Are there two types of unipolar depression? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 866–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kupfer, D. J., & Thase, M. E. (1983). The use of the sleep laboratory in the diagnosis of affective disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 6, 3–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rhode, P., Seeley, J. R., & Hops, H. (1991). Comorbidity of unipolar depression. I. Major depression with dysthymia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 205–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liebowitz, M. R., & Klein, D. F (1979). Hysteroid dysphoria. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2, 555–575.Google Scholar
  51. Marsella, A. J., Hirschfeld, R. M. A., & Katz, M. M. (Eds.) (1987). The measurement of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Maser, J. D., & Cloninger, C. R. (Eds.) (1990). Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  53. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 20–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Perugi, G., Musetti, L., Simonini, E., Piagentini, F, Cassano, G. B., & Akiskal, H. S. (1990). Gendermediated clinical features of depressive illness: The importance of temperamental differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 835–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rapee, R. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1991). Chronic anxiety: Generalized anxiety disorder and mixed anxietydepression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Robins, E., & Guze, S. B. (1972). Classification of affective disorders-The primary-secondary, the endogenous-reactive and neurotic-psychotic concepts. In T. A. Williams, M. M. Katz, & J. S. Shields (Eds.), Recent advances in psychobiology of the depressive illnesses (pp. 283–293). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  57. Sargant, W., & Dally, P. (1962). Treatment of anxiety states by antidepressant drugs. British Medical Journal, 6–9.Google Scholar
  58. Spitzer, R., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1979). Research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for a selected group of functional disorders, 4th ed. New York: Biometrics Research Division, New York Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  59. Stone, M. H. (1979). Contemporary shift of the borderline concept from a schizophrenic disorder to subaffective disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3, 517–594.Google Scholar
  60. Van Valkenburg, C., Akiskal, H. S., Puzantian, V, & Rosenthal, T. (1984). Anxious depressions: Clinical, family history, and naturalistic outcome comparisons with panic and major depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 6, 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wells, K. B., Stewart, A., Hays, R. D., Burnam, M. A., Rogers, W., Daniels, M., Berry, S., Greenfield, S., & Ware, J. (1989). The functioning and well-being of depressed patients: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 914–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hagop S. Akiskal
    • 1
  • Charles van Valkenburg
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Mental Health ClinicVeterans Administration HospitalEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations