Marital Dyads

  • Gary R. Birchler
  • Lauren Schwartz

Abstract

Since most clinicians are first taught to conduct diagnostic interviewing with individuals, the changes required for interviewing a marital dyad present a myriad of complications. First, while some categories of inquiry may be similar (e.g., presenting problems, developmental histories), the conceptual frameworks and methods used for dyadic interviews are highly variable and different from those used for individuals. In particular, the necessary emphasis placed on dyadic interactions and relationship factors can cause significant problems for dyadic interactions and relationship factors can cause significant problems for the inexperienced marital therapist. That is not to say that individual problems (e.g., depression, anxiety) are irrelevant in deciding the treatment of choice, but that even when they are present, there is a special requirement to understand how the marital relationship is affected by or contributes to the two individuals’ problems.

Keywords

Family Therapy Assessment Process Initial Interview Marital Relationship Dyadic Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (1988). AAMFT code of ethical principles for marriage and family therapists. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1993). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mnental disorders, 4th ed., draft criteria. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association (1981). Ethical principles of psychologists. American Psychologist, 36, 633–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, C. M., & Stewart, S. (1983). Mastering resistance: A practical guide to family therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Basco, M. R., Birchler, G. R., Kalal, B., Talbott, R., & Slater, M. A. (1991). The clinician rating of adult communication (CRAC): A clinician’s guide to the assessment of interpersonal communications skill. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 368–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birchler, G. R. (1979). Communication skills in married couples. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Research and practice in social skills training (pp. 273–315). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  7. Birchler, G. R. (1983). Marital dysfunction. In M. Hersen (Ed.), Practice of outpatient behavioral therapy: A clinician’s handbook (pp. 229–269). New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  8. Birchler, G. R. (1988). Handling resistance to change. In I. R. H. Falloon (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral family therapy (pp. 128–155). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Birchler, G. R. (1992). Marriage. In V. B. Van Hasselt & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of social development: A lifespan perspective (pp. 397–419). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  10. Birchler, G. R., Clopton, P. L., & Adams, N. L. (1984). Marital conflict resolution: Factors influencing concordance between partner and trained coders. American Journal of Family Therapy, 12, 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Birchler, G. R., & Gershwin, M. (1990). Marital dysfunction. In M. E. Thase, B. A. Edelstein, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of outpatient treatment of adults (pp. 463–488). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  12. Birchler, G. R., & Spinks, S. H. (1980). Behavioral-systems marital and family therapy: Integration and clinical application. American Journal of Family Therapy, 8, 6–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Birchler, G. R., Weiss, R. L., & Vincent, J. P. (1975). Multimethod analysis of social reinforcement exchange between maritally distressed and nondistressed spouse and stranger dyads. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bornstein, P. H., & Bornstein, M. T. (1986). Marital therapy: A behavioral-communications approach. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Carter, B., & McGoldrick, M. (1988). The changing family life cycle, 2nd ed. New York: Gardner Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cormier, W. H., & Cormier, L. S. (1985). Interviewing strategies for helpers. Monterey CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  17. Filsinger, E. E. (Ed.) (1983). Marriage and family assessment. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Floyd, E J., & Markman, H. J. (1984). Observational biases in spouse observation: Toward a cognitivebehavioral model of marriage. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 450–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Glick, I. D., & Kessler, D. R. (1980). Marital and family therapy. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  20. Gottman, J. (1979). Marital interaction: Experimental investigations. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gurman, A. S. (1978). Contemporary marital therapies: A critique and comparative analysis of psychoanalytic, behavioral and systems theory approaches. In T. J. Paolino & B. S. McCrady (Eds.), Marriage and marital therapy (pp. 455–566). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  22. Gurman, A. S. (1991). Back to the future, ahead to the past: Is marital therapy going in circles? Journal of Family Psychology, 4, 402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gurman, A. S., & Jacobson, N. S. (1988). Marital therapy: From technique to theory, back again and beyond. In N. S. Jacobson & A. S. Gurman (Eds.), Clinical handbook of marital therapy (pp. 1–12). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  24. Haynes, S. N., & Chavez, R. E. (1983). The interview in the assessment of marital distress. In E. E. Filsinger (Ed.), Marriage and family assessment (pp. 23–44). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Haynes, S. N., Follingstad, D. R., & Sullivan, J. (1979). Assessment of marital satisfaction and interaction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 789–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hersen, M., & Bellack, A. S. (1988). Dictionary of behavioral assessment techniques. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hof, L., & Treat, S. R. (1989). Marital assessment: Providing a framework for dynamic therapy. In G. R. Weeks (Ed.), Treating couples (pp. 3–21). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  28. Jacobson, N. S. (1991). Toward enhancing the efficacy of marital therapy and marital therapy research. Journal of Family Psychology, 4(4), 373–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jacobson, M. S., Follette, W. C., & McDonald, D. W. (1982). Reactivity of positive and negative behavior in distressed and nondistressed married couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 706–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacobson, N. S., & Gurman, A. S. (Eds.) (1988). Clinical handbook of marital therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Jacobson, N. S., & Margolin, G. (1979). Marital therapy: Strategies based on social learning and behavior exchange principles New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  32. Karpel, M. A. (1980). Family secrets. I. Conceptual and ethical issues in relational context, II. Ethical and practical considerations in therapeutic management. Family Process, 19, 295–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Margolin, G. (1986). Ethical issues in marital therapy. In N. S. Jacobson & A. S. Gurman (Eds.), Clinical handbook of marital therapy (pp. 621–638). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. Margolin, G., Michelli, J., & Jacobson, N. S. (1988). Assessment of marital dysfunction. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (pp. 441–489). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  35. Meissner, W. W. (1978). The conceptualization of marriage and family dynamics from a psychoanalytic perspective. In T. J. Paolino & B. S. McGrady (Eds.), Marriage and marital therapy (pp. 25–88). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  36. Nadelson, C. C., & Paolino, T. J. (1978). Marital therapy from a psychoanalytic perspective. In T. J. Paolino & B. S. McCrady (Eds.), Marriage and marital therapy (pp. 89–164). New York: Brunner/ Mazel.Google Scholar
  37. Nichols, W. C. (1988). Marital therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Olson, D. H., Fournier, D. G., & Druckman, J. M. (1987). Counselor’s manual for PREPARE/ENRICH, revised ed. Minneapolis, MN: PREPARE/ENRICH.Google Scholar
  39. Segal, L. (1991). Brief therapy: The MRI approach. In A. S. Gurman & D. P. Kniskern (Eds.), Handbook of family therapy, Vol. II (pp. 171–199). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  40. Segraves, R. T. (1982). Marital therapy: A combined psychodynamic-behavioral approach. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  41. Spinks, S. H., & Birchler, G. R. (1982). Behavioral-systems marital therapy: Dealing with resistance. Family Process, 21, 169–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stuart, R. B. (1980). Helping couples change: A social learning approach to marital therapy. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Vincent, J. P., Weiss, R. L., & Birchler, G. R. (1975). A behavioral analysis of problem solving in distressed and nondistressed married and stranger dyads. Behavior Therapy, 6, 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Weiss, R. L. (1980). Strategic behavioral marital therapy: Toward a model for assessment and intervention. In J. P. Vincent (Ed.), Advances in family intervention, assessment and therapy Vol. I (pp. 229–271). Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  45. Weiss, R. L. (1981). The new kid on the block: Behavioral systems approach. In E. E. Filsinger & R. A. Lewis (Eds.), Assessing marriage (pp. 22–37). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Weiss, R. L., & Birchler G. R. (1975). Areas of change questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Oregon, Eugene.Google Scholar
  47. Weiss, R. L., & Summers, K. L. (1983). Marital interaction coding system—III. In E. E. Filsinger (ed.), Marriage and family assessment (pp. 85–116). Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Wynne, L. C. (1984). The epigenesis of relational systems: A model for understanding family development. Family Process, 23, 297–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary R. Birchler
    • 1
  • Lauren Schwartz
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterUniversity of California at San Diego School of MedicineSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations