Physical and Thermal Properties

  • Orlando B. Andersland
  • Branko Ladanyi


Frozen soil is a four-component system consisting of soil particles, ice, water, and air. The particles (mineral and/or organic matter) come in various sizes and shapes with a thin film of unfrozen water coating most mineral grains. The voids are filled with ice, unfrozen water, and air. Ice may be distributed uniformly throughout the soil mass or it may have accumulated in the form of irregular or stratified ice inclusions. Larger ice masses may form as a result of processes associated with ice wedges and pingos. Frozen soil classification involves identification of the soil phase, adding characteristics associated with the frozen soil, and describing ice found in frozen ground.


Freeze Soil California Bearing Ratio Freeze Ground Total Water Content Unfrozen Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orlando B. Andersland
    • 1
  • Branko Ladanyi
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Ecole Polytechnique of the Université de MontréalCanada

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