Fruit Flies pp 311-318 | Cite as

Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies by Inundative Releases of Natural Enemies

  • R. E. Gingrich


Release of natural enemies of fruit flies were first made at the beginning of the present century after the government of western Australia launched a world-wide search for parasitoids of Ceratitis capitata. Several were found, brought to Australia and released. Since that initial effort more than 80 parasitoid species have been recovered from tephritids; of this number about one-half of the species have been inoculatively released into new areas and of these about one half are known to have become established. The success of these efforts, measured by the establishment of the parasitoid in the release area, its spread to adjacent areas and the parasitism rate in host insects, has been variable. Parasitism was usually well below 50% among susceptible hosts and no tephritid pest species has been completely controlled by this classical approach.


Natural Enemy Parasitism Rate Sterile Insect Technique Population Suppression Augmentative Release 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

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  • R. E. Gingrich

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