Brain Injury Biomechanics

  • John W. Melvin
  • James W. Lighthall
  • Kazunari Ueno

Abstract

The brain may be the organ most critical to protect from trauma, because anatomic injuries to its structures are currently nonreversible, and consequences of injury can be devastating. The experimental study of brain injury mechanisms is unparalleled, because effects of trauma to the organs responsible for control and function of the body are the objects of the study. Injury of the central nervous system results not only from local primary effects, but from effects on physiologic homeostasis that may lead to secondary injury. The brain controls the flow of information, including autonomic control as well as sensory perception and motor function. The brain is the source of intentional actions, and it functions in time to store, retrieve, and process information. The state of self-awareness or consciousness is the highest level of brain function in man.

Keywords

Brain Injury Head Injury Subdural Hematoma Skull Fracture Head Impact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel JM, Gennarelli TA, Segawa H (1978) Incidence and severity of cerebral concussion in the rhesus monkey following sagittal plane angular acceleration. 22nd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers 22: 35–53.Google Scholar
  2. Adams JH, Doyle D, Ford I, et al (1989) Diffuse axonal injury in head injury: definition, diagnosis and grading. Histopathology 15: 49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams JH, Doyle D, Graham DI, et al (1986) Gliding contusions in nonmissile head injury in humans. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 10: 485–488.Google Scholar
  4. Adams JH, Graham DI, Gennarelli TA (1985) Contemporary neuropathological considerations regarding brain damage in head injury. In Becker DP, Povlishock JT, (eds). Central nervous system trauma status report. Sponsored by NIH, NINCDS, pp 143–452.Google Scholar
  5. Adams JH, Doyle DI (1984) Diffuse brain damage in non-missile head injury. In Anthony PP, MacSween RNM (eds). Recent advances in histopathology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 241–257.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson TE (1982) A controlled pneumatic technique for experimental spinal cord contusion. J Neurosci Methods 6: 327–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakay L, Lee JC, Lee GC, Peng JR (1977) Experimental cerebral concussion. Part I: An electron microscopic study. J Neurosurg 47: 525–531.Google Scholar
  8. Barron KD, Auen EL, Dentinger MP, Nelson L, Bourke R (1980) Reversible astroglial swelling in a trauma-hypoxia brain injury in cat. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 39: 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bean JW, Beckman DL (1969) Centrogenic pulmonary pathology in mechanical head injury. J Appl Physiol 37: 807–812.Google Scholar
  10. Beckman DL, Bean JW (1970) Pulmonary pressure-volume changes attending head injury. J Appl Physiol 29: 631–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergren DR, Beckman DL (1975) Pulmonary surface tension and head injury. J Trauma 15: 336–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chapon A, Verriest JP, Dedoyan J, Trauchessec R, Artru R (1983) Research on brain vulnerability from real accidents. ISO document No. ISO/ TC22SC12/GT6/N139.Google Scholar
  13. Cheng CLY, Povlishock JT (1988) The effect of traumatic brain injury on the visual system: A morphologic characterization of reactive axonal change. J Neurotrauma 5: 47–60.Google Scholar
  14. Clifton GL, Lyeth BG, Jenkins LW, et al (1989) Effect of D, a-tocopheryl succinate and polyethylene glycol on performance tests after fluid percussion brain injury. J Neurotrauma 6: 71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooper PR (1982a) Post-traumatic intracranial mass lesions. Head Injury, pp 185–232. Edited by PR Cooper. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/ London. Cooper PR (1982b) Skull fracture and traumatic cerebrospinal fluid fistulas. Head Injury, pp 65–81. Edited by PR Cooper. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London.Google Scholar
  16. Cortez SC, McIntosh TK, Noble LJ (1989) Experimental fluid percussion brain injury: vascular disruption and neuronal and glial alterations. Brain Res 482: 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dail WG, Feeney DM, Murray HM, Linn RT, Boyeson MG (1981) Responses to cortical injury II: Widespread depression of the activity of an enzyme in cortex remote from a focal injury. Brain Res 211: 79–89.Google Scholar
  18. Denny-Brown D, Russell WR (1941) Experimental cerebral concussion. Brain 64: 93–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Denny-Brown D (1945) Cerebral concussion. Physiol Rev 25: 296–325.Google Scholar
  20. Dixon CE, Lyeth BG, Povlishock JT, et al (1987) A fluid percussion model of experimental brain injury in the rat. J Neurosurg 67: 110–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dixon CE, Lighthall JW, Anderson TE (1988) Physiologic, histopathologic, and cineradiographic characterization of a new fluid-percussion model of experimental brain injury in the rat. J Neurotrauma 5: 91–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dixon CE, Clifton GL, Lighthall JW, Yaghmai AA, Hayes RL (1991) A controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 39: 3, pp 253–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Feeney DM, Boysen MG, Linn RT, Murray HM, Dail WG (1981) Responses to cortical injury. I. Methodology and local effects of contusions in the Rat. Brain Res 211: 67–77.Google Scholar
  24. Folz EL, Schmidt RP (1956) The role of the reticular formation in the coma of head injury. J Neurosurg 13: 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gadd CW (1961) Criteria for injury potential. Impact Acceleration Stress Symposium, National Research Council publication no. 977. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC, pp 141–144.Google Scholar
  26. Gadd CW (1966) Use of a weighted impulse criterion for estimating injury hazard. 10th Stapp Car Crash Conference. Society of Automotive Engineers 10, pp 164–174.Google Scholar
  27. Gennarelli TA (1980) Analysis of head injury severity by AIS-80. 24th Annual Conference of the American Association of Automotive Medicine, pp 147–155. AAAM, Morton Grove, III.Google Scholar
  28. Gennarelli TA (1981) Mechanistic approach to head injuries: clinical and experimental studies of the important types of injury. Head and neck injury criteria: a consensus workshop, pp 20–25. Edited by AK Ommaya. U.S. department of transportation, national highway traffic safety administration, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  29. Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE (1982) Biomechanics of acute subdural hematoma. J Trauma 22: 680–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE (1983) Experimental production of prolonged traumatic coma in the primate. In Villiani R (eds) Advances in neurotraumatology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 31–33.Google Scholar
  31. Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE (1985) Biological models of head injury. In Becker DP, Povlishock JT (eds) Central nervous system trauma status report. Sponsored by NIH, NINCDS, pp 391–404.Google Scholar
  32. Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE, Adams JH, Graham DI, Thompson CJ, Marcincin RP (1982) Diffuse axonal injury and traumatic coma in the primate. Ann Neurol 12: 564–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gennarelli TA, Thibault LE, Tomei G, Wiser R, Graham D, Adams J (1987) Directional dependence of axonal brain injury due to centroidal and non-centroidal acceleration. Society of Automotive Engineers, 31st Stapp Car Crash Conference. Warrendale, PA, 31: 49–53.Google Scholar
  34. Goldman H, Hodgson V, Moorehead M, Hazlett J, Murphy S (1991) Cerebrovascular changes in a rat model of moderate closed-head injury. J Neuro-trauma 8 (2): 129–144.Google Scholar
  35. Gosch HH, Gooding E, Schneider RC (1970) The lexan calvarium for the study of cerebral responses to acute trauma. J Trauma 10: 370–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Govons SR, Govons RB, VanHuss WD, Heusner WW (1972) Brain concussion in the rat. Exp Neurol 34: 121–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Graham DI, Adams JH, Doyle D (1978) Ischemic brain damage in fatal non-missile head injuries. J Neurol Sci 39: 213–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gurdjian ES and Lissner HR (1944) Mechanism of head injury as studied by the cathode ray oscilloscope preliminary report. J Neurosurgery 1: 393–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gurdjian ES, Webster JE, Lissner HR (1955) Observations of the mechanism of brain concussion, contusion, and laceration. Surg Gynecol Obstet 101: 680–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gurdjian ES, Lissner HR, Webster JE, Latimer FR and Haddad BF (1954) Studies on experimental concussion. Neurology 4: 674–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gurdjian ES, Roberts VL, Thomas LM (1966) Tolerance curves of acceleration and intracranial pressure and protective index in experimental head injury. J Trauma 6: 600–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hayes RL, Stalhammar D, Povlishock JT, et al (1987) A new model of concussive brain injury in the cat produced by extradural fluid volume loading: II. Physiological and neurophysiological observations. Brain Injury 1: 93–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hall E (1985) High-dose glucocorticoid treatment improves neurologic recovery in head-injured mice. J Neurosurg 62: 882–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hodgson VR, Thomas LM, Gurdjian ES, Fernando OU, Greenber SW, Chason JL (1969) Advances in understanding of experimental concussion mechanisms. 13th Stapp Car Crash Conf. Society of Automotive Engineers 13: 18–37.Google Scholar
  45. Holbourn AHS (1943) Mechanics of head injury. Lancet 2: 438–441. Human tolerance to impact conditions as related to motor vehicle design. Society of Automotive Engineers, Human Injury Criteria Task Force. SAEGoogle Scholar
  46. Handbook Supplement J885–84. Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1984. Interagency Head Injury Task Force report. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, NINDS, pp 1–29, February 1989.Google Scholar
  47. Jennett B (1976) Some medicolegal aspects of the management of acute head injury. British Medical Journal, 1: 1383–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Landesman S, Cooper PR (1982) Infectious complications of head injury. Head Injury, pp 343–362. Edited by PR Cooper. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London.Google Scholar
  49. Langfitt TW (1978) Measuring the outcome from head injuries. J Neurosurg 48: 673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Langfitt TW, Tannanbaum HM, Kassell NF (1966) The etiology of acute brain swelling following experimental head injury. J Neurosurg 24: 47–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee MC, Melvin JW, Ueno K (1987) Finite element analysis of traumatic subdural hematoma. 31st Stapp Car Crash Conference. Society of Automotive Engineers 31: 67–77.Google Scholar
  52. Lee MC, Haut RC (1989) Insensitivity of tensile failure properties of human bridging veins to strain rate: implications in biomechanics of subdural hematoma. J Biomech 22: 537–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewelt W, Jenkins LW, Miller JD (1980) Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow after experimental fluid percussion injury of the brain. J Neurosurg 53: 500–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lewis HP, McLaurin RL (1972) Cerebral blood flow and its responsiveness to arterial pCO2: alterations before and after experimental head injury. Surg Forum 23: 413–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lighthall JW (1988) Controlled cortical impact: a new experimental brain injury model. J Neuro-trauma 5 (1): 1–15.Google Scholar
  56. Lighthall JW, Melvin JW, Ueno K (1989) Toward a biomechanical criterion for functional brain injury. Experimental Safety Vehicle Conference. Goteberg, Sweden Paper #89–4a-0–002, pp 2–10.Google Scholar
  57. Lighthall JW, Dixon CE, Anderson TE (1989) Experimental models of brain injury. J Neuro-trauma 6: 83–99.Google Scholar
  58. Lighthall JW, Goshgarian HG, Pinderski CR (1990) Characterization of axonal injury produced by controlled cortical impact. J Neurotrauma 7 (2): 65–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lindgren S, Rinder L (1965) Experimental studies in head injury, I: Some factors influencing results of model experiments. Biophysik 3: 320–329.Google Scholar
  60. Lissner HR, Lebow M, Evans FG (1960) Experimental studies on the relation between acceleration and intracranial pressure changes in man. Surg Gynecol Obstet 111: 329–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lowenhielm P (1974) Dynamic properties of the parasagittal bridging vein. Zeitschrift fur Rechtsmedizin 74: 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Margulies SS, Thibault LE, Gennarelli TA (1990) Physical model simulations of brain injury in the primate. J Biomech 23: 823–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martins AN, Doyle TF (1977) Blood flow and oxygen consumption of the focally traumatized monkey. J Neurosurg 47: 346–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McIntosh TK, Noble L, Andrews B, Faden AI (1987) Traumatic brain injury in the rat: characterization of a midline fluid-percussion model. CNS Trauma 4 (2): 119–134.Google Scholar
  65. McIntosh TK, Faden AI, Bendall MR, et al (1987) Traumatic brain injury in the rat: Alterations in brain lactate and pH as characterized by 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. J Neurochem 49: 1530–1540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McIntosh TK, Vink R, Noble L, et al (1989) Traumatic brain injury in the rat: characterization of a lateral fluid-percussion model. Neuroscience 28: 233–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McCullough D, Nelson KM, Ommaya AK (1971) The acute effects of experimental head injury on the vertebrobasilar circulation: angiographic observations. J Trauma 11: 422–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Melvin JW Evans FG (1972) A strain energy approach to the mechanics of skull fracture. 15th Stapp Car Crash Conf. Society of Automotive Engineers 15: 666–685.Google Scholar
  69. Meyer JS (1956) Studies of cerebral circulation in brain injury, III: Cerebral contusion, laceration and brain stem injury. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 8: 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Millen JE, Glauser FL, Zimmerman M (1980) Physiological effects of controlled concussive brain trauma. J Applied Physiol 49: 856–861.Google Scholar
  71. Nelson LR, Auen EL, Bourke RS, Barron KD (1979) A new head injury model for evaluation of treatment modalities, Neurosci Abstr 5: 516.Google Scholar
  72. Nelson LR, Auen EL, Bourke RS, et al (1982) A comparison of animal head injury models developed for treatment modality evaluation. In Grossman RG, Gildenber PL (eds) Head injury: basic and clinical aspects. Raven Press, New York, pp 117–128.Google Scholar
  73. Nilsson B, Ponten U, Voigt G (1978) Experimental head injury in the rat. Part I: mechanics, pathophysiology, and morphology in an impact acceleration trauma. J Neurosurg 47: 241–251.Google Scholar
  74. Ommaya AK. Experimental head injury in the monkey. In Caveness WF, Walker AE (eds) Head injury conference proceedings. JB Lippincott, New York, pp 321–342.Google Scholar
  75. Ommaya AK (1985) Biomechanics of head injury: experimental aspects. In Nahum AM, Melvin JW (eds) The biomechanics of trauma. AppletonCentury-Crofts, Norwalk, CT, pp 245–269.Google Scholar
  76. Ommaya AK, Corrao P, Letcher FS (1973) Head injury in the chimpanzee. Part 1: biodynamics of traumatic unconsciousness. J Neurosurg 39: 167–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ommaya AK, Geller A, Parsons LC (1971) The effects of experimental head injury on one-trial learning in rats. Int J Neurosci 1: 371–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ommaya AK, Gennarelli TA (1974) Cerebral concussion and traumatic unconsciousness. Correlation of experimental and clinical observations on blunt head injuries. Brain 97: 633–654.Google Scholar
  79. Ommaya AK, Grubb RL, Naumann RA (1971) Coup and contre-coup injury: observations on the mechanics of visible brain injuries in the rhesus monkey. J Neurosurg 35: 503–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ommaya AK, Hirsch AE, Flamm ES, Mahone RH (1966) Cerebral concussion in the monkey: an experimental model. Science 153: 211–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ommaya AK, Hirsch AE, Martinez JL (1966) The role of whiplash in cerebral concussion. 10th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Society of Automotive Engineers 10: 314–324.Google Scholar
  82. Ommaya AK, Hirsch AE (1971) Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. J Biomech 4: 13–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ono K, Kikuchi A, Nakamura M, Kobayaslli H, Nakamura N (1980) Human head tolerance to sagittal impact reliable estimation deduced from experimental head injury using subhuman primates and human cadaver skulls. 24th Stapp Car Crash Conference. Society of Automotive Engineers 24: 101–160.Google Scholar
  84. Parkinson D, West M, Pathiraja T (1978) Concussion: Comparison of humans and rats. Neurosurgery 3 (2): 176–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Penn RD, Clasen RA (1982) Traumatic brain swelling and edema. Head Injury, In PR Cooper (ed) Head Injury. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London, pp 233–256.Google Scholar
  86. Povlishock JT, Becker DP, Cheng CLY, et al (1983) Axonal change in minor head injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42: 225–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Povlishock JT (1985) The morphopathologic responses to experimental head injuries of varying severity. In Becker DP, Povlishock JT (eds) Central nervous system trauma status report. Sponsored by NIH, NINCDS, pp 443–452.Google Scholar
  88. Povlishock JT, Becker DP, Sullivan HG, Miller JD (1978) Vascular permeability alterations to horseradish peroxidase in experimental brain injury. Brain Res 153: 223–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pudenz RH, Sheldon CH (1946) The Lucite calvarium—A method for direct observation of the brain. II. Cranial trauma and brain movement. J Neurosurg 3: 487–505.Google Scholar
  90. Rapoport SI, Fredericks W, Ohno K, Pettigrew KD (1980) Quantitative aspects of reversible osmoticGoogle Scholar
  91. opening of the blood-brain barrier. Am J Physiol 238: R421–R431.Google Scholar
  92. Rimel RW, Giordani B, Barth JT, et al (1982) Moderate head injury: Completing the clinical spectrum of brain trauma. Neurosurgery 11: 344–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rinder L (1969) Concussive response and intra-cranial pressure changes at sudden extradural fluid volume input in rabbits. Acta Physiol Scand 76: 352–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scott WW (1940) Physiology of concussion. Arch Neurolog Psychiat 43: 270–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Scott WE (1981) Epidemiology of head and neck trauma in victims of motor vehicle accidents. Head and Neck Criteria: A consensus Workshop, Ommaya AK (ed) U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington DC, pp 3–6.Google Scholar
  96. Shatsky SA, Evans DE, Miller F, Martins AN (1974) High-speed angiography of experimental head injury. J Neurosurg 41: 523–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stalhammar D, Galinat BJ, Allen AM, et al (1987) A new model of concussive brain injury in the cat produced by extradural fluid volume loading: I. Biomechanical properties. Brain Injury 1: 79–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sullivan HG, Martinez J, Becker DP, Miller JD, Griffith R, Wist AO (1976) Fluid-percussion model of mechanical brain injury in the cat. J Neurosurg 45: 520–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tarriere C (1981) Investigation of brain injuries using the C.T. Scanner. In Ommaya AK (ed) Head and neck injury criteria: a consensus workshop. U.S. department of transportation, national highway traffic safety administration, Washington DC, pp 39–49.Google Scholar
  100. Thibault LE, Galbraith HA, Thompson CJ, Gennarelli TA (1982) The effects of high strain rate uniaxial extension on the electrophysiology of isolated neural tissue. In Viano DC (ed) Advances in bioengineering. ASME, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Tornheim PA, McLaurin RL, Thorpe JF (1976) The edema of cerebral contusion. Surg Neurol 5: 171–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tornheim PA, McLaurin RL (1981) Acute changes in regional brain water content following experimental closed head injury. J Neurosurg 55: 407–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tornheim PA, Linwicz BH, Hirsch CS, Brown DL, McLaurin RL (1983) Acute responses to blunt head trauma: experimental model and gross pathology. J Neurosurg 59: 431–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tornheim PA, McLaurin RL, Sawaya R (1979) Effect of furosemide on experimental traumatic cerebral edema. Neurosurg 4: 48–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ueno K, Melvin JW, Lundquist E, Lee MC (1989) Two-Dimensional finite element analysis of human brain impact responses: application of a scaling Law. In Crashworthiness and Occupant Protection in Transportation Systems. AMD-Vol 106. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp 123–124.Google Scholar
  106. Unterharnscheidt ET (1969) Pathomorphology of experimental head injury due to rotational acceleration. Acta Neuropath 12: 200–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Walker AE, Kollros JJ, Case TJ (1944) The physiological basis of concussion. J Neurosurg 1: 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ward CC, Nahum A (1979) Correlation between brain injury and intracranial pressure in experimental head impacts. 4th IRCOBI Conference. Goteborg, Sweden, pp 67–74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Melvin
  • James W. Lighthall
  • Kazunari Ueno

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations