Color Doppler and Fetal Echocardiography

  • U. Gembruch
  • R. Bald
  • M. Hansmann


Color Doppler flow mapping of fetal heart was performed in 1488 fetuses between 16 and 40 weeks of gestation. Congenital heart diseases were excluded in 1370 fetuses correctly. In 118 fetuses cardiovascular anomalies (without the cases with arrhythmias) were present. In four fetuses, the diagnosis was missed (ventricular septal defect: three cases; coarctation of aorta: one case).

The most important additional informations obtained by colorpopplerflow mapping were: (1) diagnosis of insufficiencies of atrioventricular valves; (2) demonstration of turbulent high velocity jet in stenosis of semilunar valve; (3) reverse flow in ascending aorta in aortic atresia and in ductus arteriosus and main pulmonary artery in pulmonary atresia; (4) reverse perfusion of ductus arteiosus and main pulmonary artery along with antegrad high velocity jet in severe pulmonary stenosis as part of tetralogy of Fallot, (5) absent or left-to-right shunt across the foramen ovale in severe obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract combined with mitral insufficiency; (6) bidirectional interventricular shunting of blood in isolated ventricular septal defects and unidirectional interventricular shunting in ventricular septal defects combined with diverse obstructions of ventricular inflow and outflow tract.


Congenital Heart Disease Prenatal Diagnosis Ventricular Septal Defect Cardiac Defect Aortic Valve Stenosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Gembruch
    • 1
  • R. Bald
    • 1
  • M. Hansmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Prenatal Diagnosis and TherapyUniversity of BonnGermany

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