The content of the preceding chapters is designed to present an overview of systems science in both the natural and social sciences. This has been achieved by looking at the concepts that make up the systems framework, and by considering the breadth of application achievable with such a framework. We have seen that, emerging from the presentation, there is universal agreement within the systems movement that systems thinking is at least “a good idea” worth exploring and developing in order to ascertain whether a coherent body of knowledge can be developed. In our endeavor to bring together fundamental systems thinking and theory, and to show the application of systems ideas, we have uncovered doubts and disputes about how systems thinking should be employed. Many of these differences of opinion can be traced back to philosophical roots. In this chapter we will explore these philosophical roots and will provide a framework that sweeps away the old quibbles. We will show systems science as a whole, and make it ready to contribute more effectively to other disciplines and real world application.
KeywordsSystem Science Critical System System Thinking Philosophical Issue Soft System Methodology
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