Why We Nap pp 258-270 | Cite as

Narcolepsy and the Pathological Aspects of Multiple Napping

  • Hartmut Schulz
  • Johanna Wilde-Frenz
  • Stephan Volk
  • Peter Geisler


The placement and duration of sleep within the nychthemeron is under the control of (1) homeostasis, (2) circadian rhythms, (3) individual demands and habits, and (4) environmental conditions. The first two factors are the basis for the two-process model of sleep (Borbély, 1982). Factor 3 was added by Webb (1988) as an essential behavioral component. Both this third factor and the fourth one are optional factors for sleep-wake regulation. According to the relative strength of each single factor and to their specific combination, very different temporal distributions of sleeping and waking can result.


Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Night Sleep Pathological Aspect Critical Flicker Fusion Sleep Episode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Billiard M (1976): Competition between the two types of sleep, and the recuperative function of REM versus NREM sleep in narcoleptics. In: Narcolepsy, Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, eds. New York: Spectrum, pp 77–96Google Scholar
  2. Borbély AA (1982): A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum Neurobiol 1:195–204Google Scholar
  3. Broughton R, Valley V, Aguirre M, Roberts J, Suwalski E, Dunham W (1986): Excessive daytime sleepiness and the pathophysiology of narcolepsy-cataplexy. A laboratory perspective. Sleep 9:205–215Google Scholar
  4. Campbell SS (1984): Duration and placement of sleep in a “disentrained” environment. Psychophysiology 21:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dinges DF, Broughton RJ, eds (1989): Sleep and Alertness: Chronobiological, Behavioral, and Medical Aspects of Napping. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Godbout R, Montplaisir J (1986): All-day performance variations in normal and narcoleptic subjects. Sleep 9:200–204Google Scholar
  7. Kleitman N (1982): Basic rest-activity cycle 22 years later. Sleep 5:311–317Google Scholar
  8. Kripke DF (1976): Biological rhythm disturbances may cause narcolepsy. In: Narcolepsy, Guilleminault C, Dement WC, Passouant P, eds. New York: Spectrum, pp 475–483Google Scholar
  9. Levander S, Sachs C (1985): Vigilance performance and autonomic function in narcolepsy: Effects of central stimulants. Psychophysiology 22:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Meier-Ewert K (1983): Zur Begutachtung der Narkolepsien. Oeff Gesundheitswes 45:488–493Google Scholar
  11. Pollak CP, Moline ML, Wagner DR (1987): Sleep times in narcoleptic subjects isolated from time cues. Sleep Res 16:406Google Scholar
  12. Tobler I (1989): Napping and polyphasic sleep in mammals. In: Sleep and Alertness: Chronobiological, Behavioral, and Medical Aspects of Napping, Dinges DF, Broughton RJ, eds. New York: Raven Press, pp 9–30Google Scholar
  13. Valley V, Broughton R (1983): The physiological (EEG) nature of drowsiness and its relation to performance deficits in narcoleptics. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 55:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Volk S, Schulz H, Yassouridis A, Wilde-Frenz J, Simon O (1992): The influence of two behavioral regimens on the distribution of sleep and wakefulness in narcoleptic patients. Sleep 13:136–142Google Scholar
  15. Webb WB (1988): An objective behavioral model of sleep. Sleep 11:488–496Google Scholar
  16. Zulley J (1988): The four-hour sleep wake cycle. Sleep Res 17:403Google Scholar
  17. Zulley J, Campbell SS (1985): Napping behavior during “spontaneous internal desynchronization”: Sleep remains in synchrony with body temperature. Hum Neurobiol 4:123–126Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hartmut Schulz
  • Johanna Wilde-Frenz
  • Stephan Volk
  • Peter Geisler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations