Why We Nap pp 217-241 | Cite as

Sustained-Operations Studies: From the Field to the Laboratory

  • R. G. Angus
  • R. A. Pigeau
  • R. J. Heslegrave

Abstract

Advances in military technology (including improved night-vision devices, high-performance vehicles, advanced communications systems, and increased firepower) and resultant changes in doctrine (emphasizing around-the-clock capabilities) have resulted in military forces training for sustained operations. Soldiers are expected to work with minimal sleep during missions lasting from days to weeks. Rest is dictated by the nature of the operation and will be fragmentary at best. When allowed to sleep, participants might be required to awaken quickly and resume operational duties immediately. Many experimental studies have shown that during one or more nights without sleep, as well as over longer periods of reduced or fragmented sleep, decrements occur in mood and cognitive performance (for reviews, see Wilkinson, 1965; Naitoh and Townsend, 1970; Naitoh, 1976; Kjellberg, 1977; Johnson, 1982). The operational consequences of sleep deprivation have also been recognized (Marshall, 1962). Naitoh (1983) has argued that adequate planning for sleep is as important as logistics for transportation, equipment, ammunition, and food. Sleep logistics planning is difficult, however. Work-rest schedules based on orderly civilian patterns are not appropriate for sustained operations, especially in the absence of replacement personnel.

Keywords

Sleep Deprivation Sleep Loss Battery Package Continuous Work Work Session 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainsworth LL, Bishop HP (1971): The Effect of a 48-Hour Period of Sustained Field Activity on Tank Crew Performance, HumRRO Techn Rep 71-16. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research OfficeGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen CL, Angus RG, Myles WS, Sabiston BH (1982): Interaction of chronic exercise and sleep deprivation on human performance as shown by physical, mental and biochemical responses. Proc Aerosp Med Assoc Annu Sci Meet, Miami, 1982, pp 55-56Google Scholar
  3. Alluisi EA (1969): Sustained performance. In: Principles of Skill Acquisition, Bilodeau EA, Bilodeau IM, eds. New York: Academic Press, pp 59–101Google Scholar
  4. Angus RG, Heslegrave RJ (1983): The effects of sleep loss and sustained mental work: Implications for command and control performance (NATO Report AGARD-CP-388). In Sustained Intensive Air Operations: Physiological and Psychological Aspects. Paris: NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, pp 11.1-11.21Google Scholar
  5. Angus RG, Heslegrave RJ (1985): The effects of sleep loss on sustained cognitive performance. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angus RG, Pearce DG, Buguet AGC, Olsen L (1979): Vigilance performance of men sleeping under arctic conditions. Aviat Space Environ Med 50:692–696Google Scholar
  7. Angus RG, Pearce DG, Olsen L (1981): Performance on a multiple-choice reaction time test during a period of physical exercise. In: Physiological, Psychological and Biochemical Aspects of Daily Sustained Submaximal Exercise (Fast Ball), Radomski MW, Defayolle MAJ, eds. Toronto: Franco-Canadian Accord, Theme 8, Vol II, pp H1–H15Google Scholar
  8. Angus RG, Heslegrave RJ, Myles WS (1985a): Effects of prolonged sleep deprivation, with and without chronic physical exercise, on mood and performance. Psychophysiology 22:276–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angus RG, Redmond DP, Englund CE, Heslegrave RJ (1985b): The measurement of fatigue and sleep during sustained operations in a chemical environment. In: Trial Chace II—Final Report. Canadian Forces Directorate of Preventative Medicine, Ottawa, pp M1-M25Google Scholar
  10. Baddeley AW (1968): A 3-minute reasoning test based on grammatical transformation. Psychon Sci 10:341–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banderet LE, Stokes JW, Francesconi R, Kowal DM, Naitoh P (1981): Artillery teams in simulated sustained combat: Performance and other measures. In: Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Shift Work, Johnson LC, Tepas DJ, Colquhoun WP, Colligan MJ, eds., New York: Spectrum, pp 459–477Google Scholar
  12. Banks JH, Sternberg JJ, Farrell JP, Debow CH, Delhamer WA (1970): Effects of Continuous Military Operations on Selected Military Tasks, BESRL Tech Rep No 1166. Arlington, VA: U.S. Army Behavioral and Systems Research LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  13. Bittel J, Buguet A, Roussel B, Kuehn L, Angus R (1981): Temperatures corporelles et états de sommeil. In: Physiological, Psychological and Biochemical Aspects of a Daily Sustained Submaximal Exercise (Fast Ball), Radomski: MW, Defayolle MAJ, eds. Toronto: Franco-Canadian Accord, Theme 8, Vol II, pp D1–D14Google Scholar
  14. Brooks CJ, Shergold DJ, Angus RG, Heslegrave RJ, Redmond DP (1988): Actigraphic measurements of work/sleep patterns during a navy operation. J R Nav Med Serv 74:153–164Google Scholar
  15. Buguet A, Roussel B, Angus R, Sabiston B, Radomski M (1980): Human sleep and adrenal individual reactions to exercise. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49:515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Buguet A, Roussel B, Angus R, Bittell J, Debilly G, Verchere G (1981): Exercise-induced changes in sleep patterns. In: Physiological, Psychological and Biochemical Aspects of Daily Sustained Submaximal Exercise (Fast Ball), Radomski MW, Defayolle MAJ, eds. Toronto: Franco-Canadian Accord, Theme 8, Vol II, pp B1–B16Google Scholar
  17. Colquhoun WP, Blake MJF, Edwards RS (1968): Experimental studies of shiftwork. I: A comparison of “rotating” and “stabilized” 4-hour shift systems. Ergonomics 11:437–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook MR, Cohen H, Orne MT (1972): Recovery from fatigue, Tech Rep No 55. Fort Detrick, MD: U.S. Army Medical Research and Development CommandGoogle Scholar
  19. Drucker EH, Canon LD, Ware JR (1969): The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Performance Over a 48-Hour Period, HumRRO Tech Rep No 69-8. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research OfficeGoogle Scholar
  20. Forshaw S, Angus RG, Cruchley J (1981): Observations on the effect of noise and vibration upon a CH-147 Chinook helicopter crew after moderate duration sorties. Proc Aerosp Med Assoc Annu Sci Meet, San Antonio, 1981, pp 31-32Google Scholar
  21. Friedmann J, Globus G, Huntley A, Mullaney D, Naitoh P, Johnson L (1977): Performance and mood during and after gradual sleep reduction. Psychophysiology 14:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haggard DF (1970): HumRRO Studies in Continuous Operations, HumRRO Prof Pap 7-70. Alexandria, VA: Human Resources Research OfficeGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris DA, Pegram GV, Hartman BO (1971): Performance and fatigue in experimental double-crew transport missions. Aviat Space Environ Med 24:980–986Google Scholar
  24. Harris W, O’Hanlon JF (1972): A Study of Recovery Functions in Man, Tech Memo No 10-72. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: U.S. Army Human Engineering LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  25. Haslam DR (1981): The military performance of soldiers in continuous operations: Exercise Early Call I and II. In: Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Shift Work, Johnson LC, Tepas WP, Colquhoun WP, Colligan MJ, eds. New York: Spectrum, pp 435–458Google Scholar
  26. Haslam DR (1982): Sleep loss, recovery sleep and military performance. Ergonomics 25:163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haslam DR (1985): Sleep deprivation and naps. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:46–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heslegrave RJ, Angus RG (1983): Sleep loss and sustained performance (NATO DRG Report DS/A/DS(83) 170). In: The Human as a Limiting Element in Military Systems. Brussels: NATO Research Group, pp 61–110Google Scholar
  29. Heslegrave RJ, Angus RG (1985): The effects of task duration and work-session location on performance degradation induced by sleep loss and sustained cognitive work. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:592–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hockey GR, Colquhoun WP (1972): Diurnal variations in human performance: A review. In: Aspects of Human Efficiency, Colquhoun WP, ed. London: English Universities Press, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  31. Hoddes E, Zarcone V, Smythe H, Phillips R, Dement WC (1973): Quantification of sleepiness: A new approach. Psychophysiology 10:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson LC (1979): Sleep disturbances and performance. In: A. N. Nicholson (Ed.), Sleep, Wakefulness and Circadian Rhythm, Nicholson AN, ed. Paris: NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, NATO AGARD Lect Ser No 105, pp 8:1-8:17Google Scholar
  33. Johnson LC (1982): Sleep deprivation and performance. In: Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Performance, Webb WB, ed. Chichester, England: Wiley, pp 111–141Google Scholar
  34. Johnson LC, Naitoh P (1974): The Operational Consequences of Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Deficit, NATO AGARDograph No 193. Paris: NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  35. Kjellberg A (1977): Sleep deprivation and some aspects of performance: MIL Waking Sleeping 1:139–155Google Scholar
  36. Kuehn L, Angus R, Olsen L (1981): The effect of body temperatures on the quality and speed of human performance. In: Physiological, Psychological and Biochemical Aspects of a Daily Sustained Submaximal Exercise (Fast Ball), Radomski MW, Defayolle MAJ, eds. Toronto: Franco-Canadian Accord, Theme 8, Vol II, pp G1–G15Google Scholar
  37. Marshall SLA (1962): Night Drop: The American Airborne Invasion of Normandy. Boston: Little, BrownGoogle Scholar
  38. Morgan BB, Brown BR, Alluisi EA (1974): Effects of sustained performance on 48 hours of continuous work and sleep loss. Hum Factors 16:406–414Google Scholar
  39. Mullaney DJ, Kripke DF, Fleck PA, Johnson LC (1983): Sleep loss and nap effects on sustained continuous performance. Psychophysiology 20:643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naitoh P (1976): Sleep deprivation in human subjects: A reappraisal. Waking Sleeping 1:53–60Google Scholar
  41. Naitoh P (1981): Circadian cycles and restorative power of naps. In: Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Shift Work, Johnson LC, Tepas DI, Colquhoun WP, Colligan MJ, eds. New York: Spectrum, pp 553–580Google Scholar
  42. Naitoh P (1983): Extending human effectiveness during sustained operations through sleep management (NATO DRG Report DS/A/DS(83) 170). In: The Human as a Limiting Element in Military Systems. Brussels: NATO Defence Research Group, pp 113–137Google Scholar
  43. Naitoh P, Angus RG (1989): Napping and human functioning during prolonged work. In: Sleep and Alertness: Chronobiological, Psychological and Medical Aspects of Napping, Dinges DF, Broughten RJ, eds. New York: Raven Press, pp 221–246Google Scholar
  44. Naitoh P, Townsend RE (1970): The role of sleep deprivation in human factors. Hum Factors 12:575–585Google Scholar
  45. Naitoh P, Englund CE, Ryman D (1982): Restorative Power of Naps in Designing Continuous Work Schedules, NHRC Tech Rep 82-25. San Diego: Naval Health Research CenterGoogle Scholar
  46. Opstad PK, Ekanger M, Nummestrad M, Raabe N (1978): Performance, mood and clinical symptoms in men exposed to prolonged, severe physical work and sleep deprivation. Aviat Space Environ Med 49:1065–1073Google Scholar
  47. Pigeau RA, Heslegrave RJ, Angus RG (1987): Psychophysiological measures of drowsiness as estimators of mental fatigue and performance degradation during sleep deprivation. In: Electric and Magnetic Activity of the Central Nervous System: Research and Clinical Applications in Aerospace Medicine. Paris: NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, pp 21.1–21.16Google Scholar
  48. Rivolier J, Cazes G, Pearce DG, Regnard J, Angus RG, Pontet A (1982): Psychosociological study of a small group of men exposed to an arctic climate. In: Physiological, Psychological and Ergonomic Aspects of the Exposure of Man to Arctic Cold (Kool Stool II), Radomski MW, Boutelier C, Buguet A, eds. Toronto: Franco-Canadian Accord, Theme 8, Vol I, pp G1–G63Google Scholar
  49. Rutenfranz J, Aschoff J, Mann H (1972): The effects of cumulative sleep deficit, duration of preceding sleep period and body temperature on multiple choice reaction time. In: Aspects of Human Efficiency, Colquhoun WP, ed. London: English Universities Press, pp 217–230Google Scholar
  50. Taub JM (1979): Effects of habitual variations in napping on psychomotor performance, memory and subjective states. Int J Neurosci 16:97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Taub JM, Berger RJ (1973): Performance and mood following variations in the length and timing of sleep. Psychophysiology 10:559–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tilley AJ, Wilkinson RT (1984): The effects of restricted sleep regime on the composition of sleep and on performance. Psychophysiology 21:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Webb WB, Agnew HW (1965): Sleep: Effects of a restricted regime. Science 150:1745–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Webb WB, Agnew HW (1974): The effects of a chronic limitation of sleep length. Psychophysiology 11:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilkinson RT (1964): Effects of up to 60 hours of sleep deprivation on different types of work. Ergonomics 17:175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilkinson RT (1965): Sleep deprivation. In: The Physiology of Human Survival, Edholm OG, Bacharach A, eds. New York: Academic Press, pp 399–430Google Scholar
  57. Wilkinson RT (1969): Sleep deprivation: Performance tests for partial and selected sleep deprivation. In Prog Clin Psycho 8:28–43Google Scholar
  58. Wilkinson RT, Houghton D (1975): Portable four-choice reaction time test with magnetic tape memory. Behav Res Methods Instrum 7:441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wilkinson RT, Stretton M (1971): Performance after awakening at different times of the night. Psychon Sci 23:283–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wilkinson RT, Edwards RS, Haines E (1966): Performance following a night of reduced sleep. Psychon Sci 5:471–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Angus
  • R. A. Pigeau
  • R. J. Heslegrave

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations