Why We Nap pp 199-216 | Cite as

Minimal Sleep to Maintain Performance: The Search for Sleep Quantum in Sustained Operations

  • Paul Naitoh


The purpose of this chapter is to review some of the current research findings that have contributed to determining the minimal amount of sleep needed to maintain a high level of task performance for days, weeks, and even months.


Sleep Stage Slow Wave Sleep Sleep Efficiency Sleep Episode Total Sleep Deprivation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angiboust R (1970): General discussion. In Aspects of Human Efficiency: Diurnal Rhythm and Loss of Sleep, Colquhoun WP, ed. London: English Universities PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Angus RO, Heslegrave RJ (1985): Effects of sleep loss on sustained cognitive performance during a command and control simulation. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balkin TJ, Badia P (1988): Relationship between sleep inertia and sleepiness: Cumulative effects of four nights of sleep disruption/restriction on performance following abrupt nocturnal awakenings. Biol Psychol 27:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonnet MH (1985): Effect of sleep disruption on sleep, performance and mood. Sleep 8:11–19Google Scholar
  5. Bonnet MH (1986): Performance and sleepiness as a function of frequency and placement of sleep disruption. Psychophysiology 23:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carskadon MA, Dement WG (1975): Sleep studies on a 90-minute day. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 39:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carskadon MA, Dement WC (1977): Sleepiness and sleep state on a 90 min schedule. Psychophysiology 14:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dinges DF (1983): Prophylactic Napping to Sustain Performance and Alertness in Continuous Operations (Contract No N00014-80-C-0380, Prog Rep 0001AN). Arlington, VA: Office of Naval ResearchGoogle Scholar
  9. Dinges DF (1989): Napping patterns and effects in human adults. In Sleep and Alertness, Dinges DF, Broughton RJ eds. New York: Raven Press, pp 171–204Google Scholar
  10. Dinges DF, Orne MT, Orne EC (1985): Assessing performance upon abrupt awakening from naps during quasi-continuous operations. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dinges DF, Orne MT, Orne EC, Whitehouse WG (1986): Napping to sustain performance and mood: Effects of circadian phase and sleep loss. In Studies in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Haider M, Kollar M, Cervinka R eds. New York: Peter Lang, Proc 7th Int Symp Night Shiftwork, Igls, Austria, 1985, Vol 3, pp 23-30Google Scholar
  12. Downey R, Bonnet MH (1987): Performance during frequent sleep disruption. Sleep 10:354–363Google Scholar
  13. Englund CE, Ryman DH, Naitoh P, Hodgdon JA (1985): Cognitive performance during successive sustained physical work episodes. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Folkard S, Condon R (1987): Night shift paralysis in air traffic control officers. Ergonomics 30:1353–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Friedmann J, Globus G, Huntley A, Mullaney D, Naitoh P, Johnson L (1977): Performance and mood during and after gradual sleep reduction. Psychophysiology 14:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hartley LR (1974): A comparison of continuous and distributed reduced sleep schedules. Q J Exp Psychol 26:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hartman BO, Langdon DE (1965): A Second Study on Performance upon Sudden Awakening, Sch Aerosp Med Rep No TR 65-61. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: U.S. Air ForceGoogle Scholar
  18. Hartman BO, Langdon DE, McKenzie RE (1965): A Third Study on Performance upon Sudden Awakening, Sch Aerosp Med Rep No 65-63. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: U.S. Air ForceGoogle Scholar
  19. Haslam DR (1982): Sleep loss, recovery sleep, and military performancee. Ergonomics 25:163–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Horne J (1988): Why We Sleep: The Functions of Sleep in Humans and Other Mammals. Oxford, England: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Husband RW (1935): The comparative value of continuous versus interrupted sleep. J Exp Psychol 18:792–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson LC, Naitoh P, Moses JM, Lubin A (1974): Interaction of REM deprivation and stage 4 deprivation with total sleep loss: Experiment 2. Psychophysiology 11:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kripke D, Simons R, Garfinkel L, Hammond C (1979): Short and long sleep and sleeping pills. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Labuc S (1978): A Study of Performance upon Sudden Awakening, Army Personnel Res Estab Rep No 1/78. Farnborough, Hants, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  25. Labuc S (1979a): Performance upon Awakening from Four Hours Sleep per Night, Army Personnel Res Estab Rep No 7/78. Farnborough, Hants, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  26. Labuc S (1979b): The Effect of a One Minute Alerting Procedure on Performance After Sudden Arousal from Sleep, Army Personnel Res Estab Rep No 8/78. Farnborough, Hants, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  27. Langdon DE, Hartman BO (1961): Performance on Sudden Awakening, Sch Aerosp Med Rep No 62-17. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: U.S. Air ForceGoogle Scholar
  28. Levine B, Roehrs T, Stepanski E, Zorick F, Roth T (1987): Fragmenting sleep diminishes its recuperative value. Sleep 10:590–599Google Scholar
  29. Lubin A, Moses JM, Johnson LC, Naitoh P (1974): The recuperative effects of REM sleep and stage 4 sleep on human performance after complete sleep loss: Experiment 1. Psychophysiology 11:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lubin A, Hord D, Tracy ML, Johnson LC (1976): Effects of exercise, bedrest and napping on performance decrement during 40 hours. Psychophysiology 13:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lumley M, Roehrs T, Zorick F, Lamphere J, Roth T (1986): The alerting effects of naps in sleep-deprived subjects. Psychophysiology 23:403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Magee J, Harsh J, Badia P (1987): Effects of experimentally-induced sleep fragmentation on sleep and sleepiness. Psychophysiology 24:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Minors DS, Waterhouse JM (1981): Anchor sleep as a synchronizer of rhythms on abnormal routines. Int J Chronobiol 7:165–188Google Scholar
  34. Moses JM, Hord DJ, Lubin A, Johnson LC, Naitoh P (1975): Dynamics of nap sleep during a 40-hour period. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 39:627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mullaney DJ, Kripke DF, Fleck PA, Johnson LC (1983): Sleep loss and nap effects on sustained continuous performance. Psychophysiology 20:643–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Naitoh P (1981): Circadian cycles and restorative power of naps. In Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Shift Work, Johnson LC, Tepas DI, Colquhoun WP, Colligan MJ, eds. New York: Spectrum, pp 553–580Google Scholar
  37. Naitoh P, Angus B (1989): Napping and human functioning during prolonged work. In: Sleep and Alertness, Dinges DF, Broughton RJ, eds. New York: Raven Press, pp 221–246Google Scholar
  38. Naitoh P, Englund CE, Ryman DH (1986): Sleep Management in Sustained Operations: User’s Guide, Nav Health Res Cent Tech Rep No 86-22. San Diego, CA: Naval Health Research CenterGoogle Scholar
  39. Nicholson AN, Stone BM (1987): Influence of back angle on the quality of sleep in seats. Ergonomics 30:1033–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pigeau RA, Heslegrave RJ, Angus RG (1987): Psychophysiological measures of drowsiness as estimates of mental fatigue and performance degradation during sleep deprivation. AGARD Conf Proc 432:21.1-21.16Google Scholar
  41. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (1968): A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  42. Seminara JL, Shavelson RJ (1969): Effectiveness of space crew performance subsequent to sudden arousal. Aerosp Med 40:723–727Google Scholar
  43. Stampi C (1985a): Ultrashort sleep-wake cycles during single-handed transatlantic races. In Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System, Redfern IC, Campbell JA, Davis XX, Martin KF, eds. Basingstoke, England: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  44. Stampi C (1985b): Ultrashort sleep-wake cycles improve performance during one-man transatlantic races. In Sleep’ 84, Koella WP, Ruther E, Schultz H, eds. Stuttgart: Gustav Fisher Verlag, pp 271–272Google Scholar
  45. Stampi C (1989a): Polyphasic sleep strategies improve prolonged sustained performance: A field study on 99 sailors. Work Stress 3:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stampi C (1989b): Ultrashort sleep/wake patterns and sustained performance. In Sleep and Alertness, Dinges DF, Broughton RJ, eds. New York: Raven Press, pp 139–169Google Scholar
  47. Stossel TP (1970): The forgotten aspect of medical education. Pharos 33:16–18Google Scholar
  48. Thorne D, Genser S, Sing H, Hegge F (1983): Plumbing human performance limits during 72 hours of high task load. In: The Human as a Limiting Element in Military Systems, Forshaw SE, Seminar director. Downsview, Canada: Defence Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine NATO DS/A/DR(83) 170, Vol 1Google Scholar
  49. Webb WB (1985a): Experiments on extended performance: Repetition, age, and limited sleep periods. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 17:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Webb WB (1985b): Sleep in industrialized settings in the northern hemisphere. Psychol Rep 57:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Webb WB, Agnew HW Jr (1974): The effects of a chronic limitation of sleep length. Psychophysiology 11:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wedderburn AAI (1987): Sleeping on the job: The use of anecdotes for recording rare but serious events. Ergonomics 30:1229–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weitzman ED, Nogeire C, Perlow M, Fukushima D, Sassin J, McGregor P, Gallagher TF, Hellman L (1974): Effects of prolonged 3-hour sleep/wake cycle on sleep stage, plasma cortisol, growth hormone and body temperature in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38:1018–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. White RM (1975): The lengths of sleep. Selected documents in Psychology, American Psychological Association, MS No. 1001 (74 pages). Abstracted in Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology 5:274Google Scholar
  55. Wilkinson RT (1970): Methods for research on sleep deprivation and sleep function. Int Psychiatr Clin 7:369–381Google Scholar
  56. Wilkinson RT, Stretton M (1971): Performance after awakening at different times of night. Psychon Sci 23:283–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wilkinson RT, Edwards RS, Haines E (1966): Performance following a night of reduced sleep. Psychon Sci 5:471–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Naitoh

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations