The Prokaryotes pp 4114-4126 | Cite as

The Genus Fusobacterium

  • Tor Hofstad


The genus Fusobacterium includes several species of obligately anaerobic, nonsporeforming, motile or nonmotile, Gram-negative rods. Some are slender, spindle-shaped bacilli, others are pleomorphic rods with parallel sides and rounded ends. Their habitat is the mucous membranes of humans and animals.


Anaerobic Bacterium Liver Abscess Grass Carp Isovaleric Acid Phenethyl Alcohol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Aalbaek, B. 1972. Gram-negative anaerobes in the intestinal flora of pigs. Acta Vet. Scand. 13: 228–237.Google Scholar
  2. Abe, P. M., C. J. Kendall, L. R. Stauffer, and J. W. Holland. 1979. Hemolytic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum culture supernatants due to presence of phospholipase A and lysophospholipase. Am. J. Vet. Res. 40: 9296.Google Scholar
  3. Adriaans, B., and B. S. Drasar, 1987. The isolation of fusobacteria from tropical ulcers. Epidem. Infect. 99: 361372.Google Scholar
  4. Adriaans, B., and H. Shah. 1988. Fusobacterium ulcerans sp. nov. from tropical ulcers. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 447–448.Google Scholar
  5. Altshuler, A., and S. Hyde. 1985. Fusobacteria. An important cause of chorioamnionitis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 109: 739–743.Google Scholar
  6. Aranki, A., S. A. Syed, E. B. Kenney, and R. Freter. 1969. Isolation of anaerobic bacteria from human gingiva and mouse cecum by means of a simplified glove box procedure. Appl. Microbiol. 17: 568–576.Google Scholar
  7. Baird-Parker, A. C. 1957. Isolation of Leptotrichia buccalis and Fusobacterium species from oral material. Nature 180: 1056–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bang, B. 1890–1891. Om aarsagen til lokal nekrose. Maanedskrift for Dyrlaeger 2: 235–259.Google Scholar
  9. Barker, H. A., J. M. Kahn, and L. Hedrick. 1982. Pathway of lysine degradation in Fusobacterium nucleatum. J. Bacteriol. 152: 201–207.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartlett, J. G., V. L. Sutter, and S. M. Finegold. 1974. Anaerobic pleuropulmonary disease: Clinical observations and bacteriology in 100 cases, p. 327–344. In: A. Balows, R. M. DeHaan, V. R. Dowell, Jr., and L. B. Guze (ed.), Anaerobic bacteria: role in disease. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
  11. Beerens, H., M. M. Castel, and L. Fievez. 1962. Classification des Bacteroidaceae, p. 120. Abstr V III Int. Congress Microbiol., Montreal.Google Scholar
  12. Beerens, H., and M. M. Tahon-Castel. 1965. Infectiones humaines à bactéries anaérobies non toxigénes. Presses Académiques Européennes, Brussels.Google Scholar
  13. Berg, J. N., and R. W. Loan. 1975. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus as etiologic agents of footrot in cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36: 1115–1122.Google Scholar
  14. Berg, J. N., and C. M. Scanlan. 1982. Studies of Fusobacterium necrophorum from bovine hepatic abscesses: Biotypes, quantitation, virulence, and antibiotic susceptibility. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43: 1580–1586.Google Scholar
  15. Beveridge, W. I. B. 1941. Foot rot in sheep: A transmissible disease due to infection with Fusiformis nodosus (n.sp.). Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Commonwealth of Australia, Bulletin 140, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  16. Bowden, G. H., and J. M. Hardie. 1971. Anaerobic organisms from the human mouth, p. 177–205. In: D. A. Shapton and R. G. Board (ed.), Isolation of anaerobes. Society for Applied Bacteriology Technical Series No. 5. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  17. Brams, J., I. Pilot, and D. J. Davis. 1923. Studies of fusiform bacilli and spirochetes. II. Their occurrence in normal preputial secretions and in erosive and gangrenous balanitis. J. Infect. Dis. 32: 159–166.Google Scholar
  18. Breed, R. S., E. G. D. Murray, and N. R. Smith (ed.). 1957. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 7th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  19. Brook, I. 1986. Encapsulated anaerobic bacteria in synergistic infections. Microbiol. Rev. 50: 452–457.Google Scholar
  20. Brook, I. 1988. Recovery of anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in 12 years at two military hospitals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1181–1188.Google Scholar
  21. Brook, I., and R. I. Walker. 1986. The relationship between Fusobacterium species and other flora in mixed infection. J. Med. Microbiol. 21: 93–100.Google Scholar
  22. Cameron, G. R., and F. E. Williams. 1926. An epidemic affecting stock rabbits. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 29: 185–188.Google Scholar
  23. Castellani, A., and A. J. Chalmers. 1919. Manual of tropical medicine. William Wood & Company, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  24. Cato, E. P., L. V. H. Moore, and W. E. C. Moore. 1985. Fusobacterium alocis sp. nov. and Fusobacterium sulci sp. nov. from the human gingival sulcus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 475–477.Google Scholar
  25. Clark, B. L., D. J. Stewart, and D. L. Emery. 1985. The role of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melanino-genicus in the aetiology of interdigital necrobacillosis in cattle. Aust. Vet. J. 62: 47–49.Google Scholar
  26. Coyle-Dennis, J. E., and L. H. Lauerman. 1978. Biological and biochemical characteristics of Fusobacterium necrophorum leukocidin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39: 1790–1793.Google Scholar
  27. Coyle-Dennis, J. E., and L. H. Lauerman. 1979. Correlations between leukocidin production and virulence of isolates of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Am. J. Vet. Res. 40: 274–276.Google Scholar
  28. Dack, G. M., L. R. Dragstedt, and T. E. Heinz. 1937. Further studies on Bacterium necrophorum isolated from cases of chronic ulcerative colitis. J. Infect. Dis. 60: 335355.Google Scholar
  29. Dack, G. M., T. E. Heinz, and L. R. Dragstedt. 1935. Ulcerative colitis. Study of bacteria in the isolated colons of three patients by cultures and by inoculation of monkeys. Arch. Surg. 31: 225–240.Google Scholar
  30. Davis, D. J., and I. Pilot. 1922. Studies of Bacillus fusiformis and Vincent’s spirochete. I. Habitat and distribution of these organisms in relation to putrid and gangrenous processes. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 79: 944–951.Google Scholar
  31. Dehazya, P., and R. J. Coles, Jr. 1980. Agglutination of human erythrocytes by Fusobacterium nucleatum: factors influencing hemagglutination and some characteristics of the agglutinin. J. Bacteriol. 143: 205–211.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Egerton, J. R., and D. S. Roberts. 1971. Vaccination against ovine foot-rot. J. Comp. Pathol. 81: 179–185.Google Scholar
  33. Egerton, J. R., D. S. Roberts, and I. M. Parsonson. 1969. The aetiology and pathogenesis of ovine foot-rot. I.A histological study of the bacterial invasion. J. Comp. Pathol. 79: 207–216.Google Scholar
  34. Eggerth, A. H., and B. H. Gagnon. 1933. The bacteroides of human feces. J. Bacteriol. 25: 389–413.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Ellermann, V. 1904. Über die Kultur der fusiformen Bacillen. Cbl Bakteriol. Parasiten. Infektkr. Abt. I Orig. 37: 729–730.Google Scholar
  36. Emery, D. L. 1988. Approaches to identify and neutralize virulence determinants of Fusobacterium and Bacteroides spp. p. 343–362. In: J. A. Roth (ed.), Virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  37. Emery, D. L., and J. A. Vaughan. 1986. Generation of immunity against Fusobacterium necrophorum in mice inoculated with extracts containing leucocidin. Vet. Microbiol. 12: 255–268.Google Scholar
  38. Fales, W. H., and G. W. Teresa. 1972a. A selective medium for the isolation of Sphaerophorus necrophorus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 33: 2317–2321.Google Scholar
  39. Fales, W. H., and G. W. Teresa. 1972b. Fluorescent antibody technique for identifying isolates of Sphaerophorus necrophorus of bovine hepatic abscess origin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 33: 2323–2329.Google Scholar
  40. Fales, W. H., J. F. Warner, and G. W. Teresa. 1977. Effects of Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin on rabbit peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38: 491–495.Google Scholar
  41. Falkler, W. H., Jr., and C. E. Hawley. 1977. Hemagglutinating activity of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Infect. Immun. 15: 230–238.Google Scholar
  42. Feiner, J. M., and V. R. Dowell, Jr.. 1971. “Bacteroides” bacteremia. Am. J. Med. 50: 787–796.Google Scholar
  43. Fievez, L. 1963. Etude comparée des souches de Sphaerophorus necrophorus isolées de L’homme et chez L’animal. Monographie, Presses Académiques Européennes, Brüssel.Google Scholar
  44. Finegold, S. 1977. Anaerobic bacteria in human disease. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Finegold, S. M., H. R. Attebery, and V. L. Sutter. 1974. Effect of diet on human fecal flora: Comparison of Japanese and American diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 14561469.Google Scholar
  46. Finegold, S. M., D. J. Flora, H. R. Attebery, and V. L. Sutter. 1975. Fecal bacteriology of colonic polyp patients and control patients. Cancer Res. 35: 3407–3417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Foglesong, M. A., D. L. Cruden, and A. J. Markovetz. 1984. Pleomorphism of fusobacteria isolated from the cockroach hindgut. J. Bacteriol. 158: 474–480.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Fuller, R., and M. Lev. 1964. Quantitative studies on some of the Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the pig alimentary tract. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 27: 434–438.Google Scholar
  49. Gainer, R. S. 1983. Necrobacillosis in wildebeest calves. J. Wildlife Dis. 19: 155–156.Google Scholar
  50. Garcia, M. M., D. C. Alexander, and K. A. McKay. 1975a. Biological characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum cell fractions in preparation for toxin and immunization studies. Infect. Immun. 11: 609–616.Google Scholar
  51. Garcia, M. M., K. M. Charlton, and K. A. McKay. 1975b. Characterization of endotoxin from Fusobacterium necrophorum. Infect. Immun. 11: 371–379.Google Scholar
  52. Gharbia, S. E. 1987. A biochemical approach to the study of the genus Fusobacterium. Ph.D. Dissertation. The University of Kuwait.Google Scholar
  53. Gharbia, S. E., and H. N. Shah. 1988a. Glucose utilization and growth response to protein hydrolysates by Fuso-bacterium species. Curr. Microbiol. 17: 229–234.Google Scholar
  54. Gharbia, S. E., and H. N. Shah. 1988b. Characteristics of glutamate dehydrogenase, a new diagnostic marker of the genus Fusobacterium. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 327332.Google Scholar
  55. Gharbia, S. E., H. N. Shah, and S. G. Welch. 1989. The influence of peptides on the uptake of amino acids in Fusobacterium; predicted interactions with Porphyromonas gingivalis. Curr. Microbiol. 19: 231–235.Google Scholar
  56. Gorbach, S. L., K. B. Menda, H. Thadepalli, and L. Keith. 1973. Anaerobic microflora of the cervix in healthy women. Am. J. Obst. Gyn. 117: 1053–1055.Google Scholar
  57. Graham, N. P. H., and J. R. Egerton. 1968. Pathogenesis of ovine foot-rot: The role of some environmental factors. Aust. Vet. J. 44: 235–240.Google Scholar
  58. Griffin, M. H. 1970. Fluorescent antibody techniques in the identification of Gram-negative nonsporeforming anaerobes. Hlth Lab. Sci. 7: 78–83.Google Scholar
  59. Hadi, A. W., and C. Russel. 1969. Fusiforms in gingival material. Quantitative estimations from normal individuals and cases of periodontal disease. Brit. Dent. J. 126: 83–84.Google Scholar
  60. Hamp, E. G., and S. E. Mergenhagen. 1963. Experimental intracutaneous fusobacterial and fusospirochetal infections. J. Infect. Dis. 112: 84–99.Google Scholar
  61. Hardie, J. M., and G. H. Bowden. 1974. The normal flora of the mouth, p. 47–83. In: E A. Skinner and J. G. Can (ed.), The normal microbial flora of man. Society for Applied Bacteriology Symposium Series No. 3. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  62. Henry, S., A. DeMaria, Jr., and W. R. McCabe. 1983. Bacteremia due to Fusobacterium species. Am. J. Med. 75: 225–231.Google Scholar
  63. Hill, G. B., S. Osterhout, and P. C. Pratt. 1974. Liver abscess production by nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria in a mouse model. Infect. Immun. 9: 599–603.Google Scholar
  64. Hite, K. E., H. C. Hesseltine, and L. Goldstein. 1947. A study of the bacterial flora of the normal and pathological vagina and uterus. Am. J. Obst. Gyn. 53: 233240.Google Scholar
  65. Hofstad, T., and T. Kristoffersen. 1971. Preparation and chemical characteristics of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide from three strains of Sphaerophorus necrophorus. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand., Sect B 79: 383–390.Google Scholar
  66. Holdeman, L. V., E. P. Cato, and W. E. C. Moore. 1977. Anaerobe laboratory manual. 4th ed., Blacksburg. VPI Anaerobe Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, VA.Google Scholar
  67. Holdeman, L. V., I. J. Good, and W. E. C. Moore. 1976. Human fecal flora: Variation in bacterial composition within individuals and a possible effect of emotional stress. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 31: 359–376.Google Scholar
  68. Horne, H. 1898–1899. Renens klovsyge. Nor. Vet. tidsskr. 10–11: 97–110.Google Scholar
  69. Hurst, V. 1957. Fusiformis in the infant mouth. J. Dent. Res. 36: 513–515.Google Scholar
  70. Hussein, H. E., and M. T. A. Shigidi. 1974. Isolation of Sphaerophorus necrophorus from bovine liver abscess in the Sudan. Trop. An. Hlth. 6: 253–254.Google Scholar
  71. Ishii, T., M. Kanoe, T. Inoue, K. Kai, and H. Blobel. 1988. Cytotoxic effects of a leukocidin from Fusobacterium necrophorum on bovine hepatic cells. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 177: 27–32.Google Scholar
  72. Jensen, C. O. 1913. Die vom Nekrosebacillus (Bacillus necroseos) hervorgerufenen Krankheiten, p. 234–250. In: Kolle, W., and von Wassermann, A. (ed.), Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen, vol. 6. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.Google Scholar
  73. Jensen, R., J. Flint, and L. A. Griner. 1954. Experimental hepatic necrobacillosis in beef cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 15: 5–14.Google Scholar
  74. Jensen, R., and D. R. MacKay. 1965. Diseases of feedlot cattle. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  75. Kanoe, M., H. Imagawa, M. Toda, A. Sato, M. Inoue, and Y. Yoshimoto. 1976. Bacteriology of bovine hepatic abscesses. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 38: 263–268.Google Scholar
  76. Kaufman, E. J., P. A. Mashimo, E. Hausmann, C. T. Hanks, and S. A. Ellison. 1972. Fusobacterial infection. Enhancement by cell free extracts of Bacteroides melaninogenicus possessing collagenolytic activity. Arch. Oral Biol. 17: 577–580.Google Scholar
  77. Knorr, M. 1923. Uber die fusospirilläre Symbiose, die Gattung Fusobacterium (K. B. Lehmann) und Spirillum sputigenum. II. Mitteilung. Die Gattung Fusobacterium. Zbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Infektkr. Abt. 1 Orig. 89: 4–22.Google Scholar
  78. Krygier, G., R. J. Genco, R A. Mashimo, and E. Hausmann. 1973. Experimental gingivitis in Macaca speciosa monkeys: Clinical, bacteriological and histological similarities to human gingivitis. J. Periodontol. 44: 454–463.Google Scholar
  79. Langworth, B. F. 1977. Fusobacterium necrophorum: Its characteristics and role as animal pathogen. Bacteriol. Rev. 44: 373–390.Google Scholar
  80. Lemierre, A. 1936. On certain septicaemias due to anaerobic organisms. Lancet ii: 701–703.Google Scholar
  81. Lewis, K. H., and L. F. Rettger. 1940. Non-sporulating anaerobic bacteria of the intestinal tract. J. Bacteriol. 40: 287–307.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Lewkowicz, X. 1901. Recherches sur la flore microbienne de la bouche des nourrissons. Arch. Med. Exp. 13: 633660.Google Scholar
  83. Loeffler, F. 1884. Bacillus der Kälberdiphterie. Mittheilungen aus dem Kaiserlichen Gesundheitsamte 2: 493–499.Google Scholar
  84. Loesche, W. J. 1969. Oxygen sensitivity of various anaer-obic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 18: 723–727.Google Scholar
  85. Love, D. N., E. P. Cato, J. L. Johnson, R. F. Jones, and M. Bailey. 1987. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization among strains of fusobacteria isolated from soft tissue infections of cats: comparison with human and animal type strains from oral and other sites. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 23–26.Google Scholar
  86. Love, D. N., R. F. Jones, and M. Bailey. 1980. Characterization of Fusobacterium species isolated from soft tissue infections in cats. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 48: 325–331.Google Scholar
  87. McCarthy, C., M. L. Snyder, and R. B. Parker. 1965. The indigenous oral flora of man. I. The newborn to the 1year-old infant. Arch. Oral Biol. 10: 61–70.Google Scholar
  88. McClung, L. J., and R. Toabe. 1947. The egg yolk plate reaction for the presumptive diagnosis of Clostridium sporogenes and certain species of the gangrene and botulinum groups. J. Bacteriol. 53: 139–147.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Maier, B. R., M. A. Flynn, G. C. Burton, R. K. Tsukakawa, and D. J. Hentges. 1974. Effects of a high-beef diet on bowel flora: A preliminary report. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 1470–1474.Google Scholar
  90. Mettam, R. W. M., and J. Carmichael. 1933. Necrobacillosis in recently captured antelope in Uganda. J. Comp. Pathol. 46: 16–24.Google Scholar
  91. Miller, W. D. 1889. Die Mikroorganismen der Mundhöhle. Die örtlichen and allgemeinen Erkrankungen welche durch dieselben hervorgerufen werden. Georg Thieme Verlag, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  92. Moore, W. E. C. 1966. Techniques for routine culture of fastidious anaerobes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 16: 173–190.Google Scholar
  93. Moore, W. E. C., and L. V. Holdeman. 1974a. Genus II Fusobacterium. Knorr 1922.4, p. 404–416. In: R. E. Buchanan, and N. E. Gibbons (ed.), Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th ed. The Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  94. Moore, W. E. C., and L. V. Holdeman. 1974b Human fecal flora: The normal flora of 20 Japanese-Hawaiians. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 27: 961–979.Google Scholar
  95. Moore, W. E. C., L. V. Holdeman, E. P. Cato, M. Smibert, J. A. Burmeister, and R. R. Ranney. 1983. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans. Infect. Immun. 42: 510–515.Google Scholar
  96. Moore, W. E. C., L. V. Holdeman, R. M. Smibert, D. E Hash, J. A. Burmeister, and R. R. Ranney. 1982. Bacteriology of seven periodontitis in young adults human. Infect. Immun. 38: 1137–1148.Google Scholar
  97. Moore-Gillon, J., T. M. Lee, S. J. Eykyn, and I. Philips. 1984. Necrobacillosis: a forgotten disease. Brit. Med. J. 288: 1526–1527.Google Scholar
  98. Morgenstein, A. A., D. M. Citron, and S. M. Finegold. 1981. New medium selective for Fusobacterium species and differential for Fusobacterium necrophorum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 666–669.Google Scholar
  99. Nagai, S., M. Kanoe, and M. Toda. 1984. Purification and partial characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum hemagglutins. Zbl. Bakteriol. A258: 232–241.Google Scholar
  100. Newsom, I. E. 1938. A bacteriologic study of liver absceses in cattle. J. Infect. Dis. 63: 232–233.Google Scholar
  101. Nolechek, W. E 1918. Necrobacillosis in horses and mules. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 54: 150–155.Google Scholar
  102. Ohtani, E. 1970a. Selective media for the isolation of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. Jpn. J. Bacteriol. 25: 222–232.Google Scholar
  103. Ohtani, F. 1970b. Selective media for the isolation of Gram-negative anaerobic rods. Part II. Distribution of Gram-negative anaerobic rods in feces of normal human beings. Jpn. J. Bacteriol. 25: 292–299.Google Scholar
  104. Oliphant, J. C., R. Parsons, and G. R. Smith. 1984. Aetiological agents of necrobacillosis in captive wallabies. Res. Vet. Sci. 36: 382–384.Google Scholar
  105. Ornata, R. R., and M. N. Disraely. 1956. A selective me- dium for oral fusobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 72: 677–680.Google Scholar
  106. Onderdonk, A. B., J. G. Bartlett, T. Louie, N. Sullivan-Seig1er, and S. L. Gorback. 1976. Microbial synergy in experimental intra-abdominal abscess. Infect. Immun. 13: 22–26.Google Scholar
  107. Panel Report. 1973. Foot rot among cattle. Modern Vet. Practice 54: 63–65.Google Scholar
  108. Parsonson, I. M., J. R. Egerton, and D. S. Roberts. 1967. Ovine interdigital dermatitis. J. Comp. Pathol. 77: 309313.Google Scholar
  109. Peach, S., F. Fernandez, K. Johnson, and B. S. Drasar. 1974. The nonsporing anaerobic bacteria in human faeces. J. Med. Microbiol. 7: 213–221.Google Scholar
  110. Plaut, H. C. 1894. Studien zur Bakteriellen Diagnostik der Diphterie und der Anginen. Dtsch Med. Wschr. 20: 920–923.Google Scholar
  111. Porschen, R. K., and S. Sonntag. 1974. Extracellular deoxyribonuclease production by anaerobic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 1031–1033.Google Scholar
  112. Pratt, J. S. 1927. On the biology of B. fusiformes. J. Infect. Dis. 41: 461–466.Google Scholar
  113. Prévot, A. R. 1938. Études de systématique bactérienne. III. Invalidité du genre Bacteroides. Castellani et Chalmers. Demembrement et reclassification. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 60: 285–307.Google Scholar
  114. Prévot, A. R., P. Goret, L. Joubert, P. Tardieux, and N. Aladame. 1951. Recherches bactériologiques sur une infection purulente d’allure actinomycosique chez le chat. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 81: 85–88.Google Scholar
  115. Pribram, E. 1929. A contribution to the classification of microorganisms. J. Bacteriol. 18: 361–394.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Richardson, R. L., and M. Jones. 1958. A bacteriolytic cen- sus of human saliva. J. Dent. Res. 37: 697–709.Google Scholar
  117. Roberts, D. S. 1967a. The pathogenic synergy of Fusiformis necrophorus and Corynebacterium pyogenes. I. Influence of the leucocidal exotoxin of F. necrophorus. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 48: 665–673.Google Scholar
  118. Roberts, D. S. 1967b. The pathogenic synergy of Fusiformis necrophorus and Corynebacterium pyogenes. II. The response of F. necrophorus to a filterable product of C. pyogenes. Brit. J. Exp. Pathol. 48: 674–679.Google Scholar
  119. Roberts, D. S., and J. R. Egerton. 1969. The aetiology and pathogenesis of ovine foot-rot. II The pathogenic association of Fusiformis nodosus and F. necrophorus. J. Comp. Pathol. 79: 217–227.Google Scholar
  120. Roberts, D. S., N. P. H. Graham, J. R. Egerton, and I. M. Parsonson. 1968. Infective bulbous necrose (heel abscess) of sheep, a mixed infection with Fusiformis necrophorus and Corynebacterium pyogenes. J. Comp. Pathol. 78: 9–17.Google Scholar
  121. Robinson, D. A., and R. J. Hay. 1985. Tropical ulcer in Zambia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 80: 132–137.Google Scholar
  122. Robrish, S. A., C. Oliver, and J. Thomson. 1987. Amino acid-dependent transport of sugar by Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953. J. Bacteriol. 169: 3891–3897.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Samuel, J. L. 1983. Jaw disease in macropod marsupials: Bacterial flora isolated from lesions and from the mouths of affected animals. Vet. Microbiol. 8: 373–387.Google Scholar
  124. Scanlan, C. M., J. N. Berg, and W. H. Fales. 1982. Cornparative in vitro leukotoxin production of three bovine strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43: 1329–1333.Google Scholar
  125. Schmorl, G. 1891. Über ein pyogenes Fadenbacterium (Streptothrix cuniculi). Dsch. Z. Tiermed. Pathol. 17: 375–408.Google Scholar
  126. Sebald, M. 1962. Étude sur les bactéries anaérobies gram-négatives asporulées. University of Paris. Dissertation.Google Scholar
  127. Shimada, K., K. S. Bricknell, and S. M. Finegold. 1969. De-conjugation of bile acids by intestinal bacteria: Review of literature and additional studies. J. Infect. Dis. 119: 273–281.Google Scholar
  128. Shinjo, T., and H. Kiyoyma. 1986. Pathogenicity of a nonhaemagglutinating mutant strain of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A in mice. Jpn J. Vet. Sci. 48: 523527.Google Scholar
  129. Simon, P. C. 1975. A simple method for rapid identification of Sphaerophorus necrophorus isolates. Can. J. Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 39: 349–353.Google Scholar
  130. Simon, P. C., and P. L. Stovell. 1969. Diseases of animals associated with Sphaerophorus necrophorus: characteristics of the organism. Vet. Bull. 39: 311–315.Google Scholar
  131. Simon, P. C., and P. L. Stovell. 1971. Isolation of Sphaero phorus necrophorus from bovine hepatic abscesses in British Columbia. Can. J. Comp. Med. Vet. Sci. 35: 103–106.Google Scholar
  132. Slanetz, L. W., and L. F. Rettger. 1933. A systematic study of the fusiform bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 26: 599–617.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Slots, J., and T. V. Potts. 1982. Fusobacterium simiae, a new species from monkey dental plaque. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32: 191–194.Google Scholar
  134. Slots, J., T. V. Potts, and P. A. Mashimo. 1983. Fusobacterium periodonticum, a new species from the human oral cavity. J. Den. Res. 62: 960–963.Google Scholar
  135. Smith, L. D. 1975. The pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, 2nd ed. p. 62–63. In: A. Balows (ed.), American lectures in clinical microbiology. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  136. Spaulding, E. H., and L. E Rettger. 1937. The Fusobacterium genus. I. Biochemical and serological clasification. J. Bacteriol. 34: 535–548.Google Scholar
  137. Stauffer, L. R., E. O. Hill, J. W. Holland, and W. A. Altemeier. 1975. Indirect fluorescent antibody procedure for the detection and identification of Bacteroides and Fusobacterium in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 337–344.Google Scholar
  138. Stewart, D. J., B. L. Clark, J. E. Peterson, D. A. Griffiths, and E. E Smith. 1982. Importance of pilus-associated antigen in Bacteroides nodosus vaccines. Res. Vet. Sci. 32: 140–147.Google Scholar
  139. Sutter, V. L., D. M. Citron, M. A. C. Edelstein, and S. M. Finegold. 1985. Wadsworth anaerobic bacteriology manual, 4th. ed. Star Publishing Company, Belmont, CA.Google Scholar
  140. Sutter, V. L., P. T. Sugihara, and S. M. Finegold. 1971. Rifampin-blood-agar as a selective medium for the isolation of certain anaerobic bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. 22: 777–780.Google Scholar
  141. Sveen, K., T. Hofstad, and K. C. Milner. 1977. Lethality for mice and chick embryos, pyrogenicity in rabbits and ability to gelate lysates from amoebocytes of Limulus polyphemus by lipopolysaccharides from Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and Veillonella. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 85: 388–396.Google Scholar
  142. Syed, S. A. 1972. Biochemical characteristics of Fusobacterium and Bacteroides species from mouse cecum. Can. J. Microbiol. 18: 169–174.Google Scholar
  143. Terada, A., K. Uchida, and T. Mitsuoka. 1976. Die Bacteroidaceenflora in den Faeces von Schweinen. Zbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Infektkr. Hyg. Orig. A 234: 362370.Google Scholar
  144. Tissier, H. 1905. Répartition des microbes dans l’intestin du nourrison. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 19: 109–123.Google Scholar
  145. Trust, T. J., L. M. Bull, B. R. Currie, and J. T. Buckley. 1979. Obligate anaerobic bacteria in the gastrointestinal microflora of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36: 1174–1179.Google Scholar
  146. Ueno, K., P. T. Sugihara, K. S. Brichnell, H. R. Attebery, V. L. Sutter, and S. M. Finegold. 1974. Comparison of characteristics of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from feces of individuals in Japan and the United States, p. 135–148. In: A. Balows, R. M. DeHaan, V. R. Dowell Jr., and L. B. Guze (ed.), Anaerobic bacteria: Role in disease. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL.Google Scholar
  147. van Assche, F. F., and A. T. Wilssens. 1977. Fusobacterium perfoetens (Tissier) Moore and Holdeman 1973: Description and proposed neotype strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 27: 1–5.Google Scholar
  148. van Houte, J., and R. J. Gibbons. 1966. Studies of the cultivable flora of normal human feces. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. 32: 212–222.Google Scholar
  149. Veillon, A., and A. Zuber. 1898. Recherches sur quelques microbes strictement anaérobies et leur rôle en pathologie. Arch. Med. Exp. 10: 517–545.Google Scholar
  150. Vincent, H. 1896. Sur l’étiologie et sur les lesions anatomopathologique de la pourriture d’Hôpital. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 10: 488–510.Google Scholar
  151. Vincent, H. 1899. Recherches bactériologiques sur l’angine a Bacillus fusiformis. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 13: 609–620.Google Scholar
  152. Vincent, H. 1904. Étiologie de la stomatite ulcéro-membraneuse primitive. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. ( Paris ) 56: 311–313.Google Scholar
  153. Wahren, A., K. Bernholm, and T. Holme. 1971. Formation of proteolytic activity in continuous culture of Sphaerophorus necrophorus. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Sect. B 79: 391–398.Google Scholar
  154. Wahren, A., and Holme, T. 1973. Amino acid and peptide requirement of Fusiformis necrophorus. Bacteriol. 116: 279–284.Google Scholar
  155. Walker, C. B., D. Ratlitt, D. Muller, R. Mandell, and S. S. Socransky. 1979. Medium for selective isolation of Fusobacterium nucleatum from human periodontal pockets. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 844–849.Google Scholar
  156. Warner, F., W. H. Fales, M. C. Sutherland, and G. W. Teresa. 1975. Endotoxin from Fusobacterium necrophorum of bovine hepatic abscess origin. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36: 1015–1019.Google Scholar
  157. Weinberg, M., R. Nativelle, and A. R. Prévot. 1937. Les microbes anaérobies. Masson et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  158. Weiss, J. E., and L. F. Rettger. 1937. The Gram-negative bacteroides of the intestine. J. Bacteriol. 33: 423–434.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Werner, H. 1972a. A comparative study of 55 Sphaerophorus strains. Differentiation of 3 species: Sphaerophorus necrophorus, Sph. varius and Sph. freundii. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 157: 299–314.Google Scholar
  160. Werner, H. 1972b. Anaerobierdifferenzierung durch gaschromatographische Stoffwechselanalysen. Zbl Bakteriol. Parasitenk. Infektkr. Hyg. Orig. A 220: 446–451.Google Scholar
  161. Werner, H., F. Neuhaus, and H. Hussels. 1971. A biochemical study of fusiform anaerobes. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 157: 10–16.Google Scholar
  162. Werner, H., and G. Pulverer. 1971. Haufigkeit und medizinische Bedeutung der eiterregenden Bacteroides and Sphaerophorus-arten. Dsch. Med. Wschr. 96: 13251329.Google Scholar
  163. Williams, B. L., R. M. Pantalone, and J. C. Sherris. 1976. Subgingival microflora and periodontitis. J. Periodont. Res. 11: 1–18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tor Hofstad

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations