The Prokaryotes pp 3488-3511 | Cite as

The Genera Campylobacter and Helicobacter

  • Fred C. Tenover
  • Cynthia L. Fennell


The genus Campylobacter encompasses a diverse group of organisms that are either cornmensals for pathogens for both humans and animals. Thirteen species are currently included in the genus (Table 1). The new genus Helicobacter contains two species previously classified as Campylobacter (Table 1). All of these organisms are Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, oxidase positive, indole negative, asaccharolytic organisms that neither ferment nor oxidize carbohydrates (Smibert 1978, 1984; Penner, 1988). Energy is produced through respiration and the metabolism of amino acids. The GC content for members of the genus falls between 29–39 mol% (Fox et al., 1989; Owen, 1983; Owen and Leaper, 1981; Harvey and Greenwood, 1983b; Ursing et al., 1983). All these organisms are slender, helically curved Gram-negative rods that are 0.2–0.5 μm wide and 0.5–8.0 μm long (Fig. 1). Pairs of cells have an S-shaped or gull-wing morphology while longer chains of cells form spirals. The shorter campylobacter forms move in a rapid, darting manner while spiral forms rotate along the long axis like corkscrews. The wavelength, amplitude, and length of the spirals vary among species. With the exceptions of Helicobacter pylori and H. mustelae,the organisms are motile by means of a long single, polar flagellum found at one or both ends of the cell (Smibert 1984). H. pylori has multiple flagella located at only one end of the cell while H. mustelae has both polar and lateral flagella (Fox et al., 1989).


Nalidixic Acid Enrichment Broth Brucella Agar Fetus Subsp Triple Sugar Iron Agar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Al-Mashat, R. R., and D. J. Taylor. 1980. Production of diarrhea and dysentary in experimental calves by feeding pure cultures of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. Vet. Rec. 107: 459–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benjamin, J., S. Leaper, R. J. Owen, and M. B. Skirrow. 1983. Description of Campylobacter laridis, a new species comprising the nalidixic acid resistant thermophilic Campylobacter (NARTC) group. Curr. Microbiol. 8: 231–238.Google Scholar
  3. Berg, R. L., and B. D. Firehammer. 1978. Effect of interval between booster vaccination and time of breeding on protection against campylobacteriosis (Vibriosis) in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assn. 173: 467–471.Google Scholar
  4. Blaser, M. J., I. D. Berkowitz, F. M. LaForce, J. Cravens, L B. Relier, and W. -L. L. Wang. 1979a. Campylobacter enteritis: clinical and epidemiologic features. Ann. Intern. Med. 91: 179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaser, M. J., and H. J. Cody. 1986. Methods for isolating Campylobacter jejuni from low-turbidity water. Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 51: 312–315.Google Scholar
  6. Blaser, M. J., J. Cravens, B. W. Powers, E. M. LaForce, and W.-L. L. Wang. 1979b. Campylobacter enteritis associated with unpasteurized milk. Am J. Med. 67: 715–718.Google Scholar
  7. Blaser, M. J., J. Cravens, B. W. Powers, and W. -L. L. Wang. 1978. Campylobacter enteritis associated with canine infection. Lancet 11: 979–981.Google Scholar
  8. Blaser, M. J., H. L. Hardesty, B. Powers, and W. -L. L. Wang. 1980a. Survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 309–313.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Blaser, M. J., E M. LaForce, N. A. Wilson, and W. -L. L. Wang. 1980b. Reservoirs for human campylobacteriosis. J. Infect. Dis. 141: 665–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blaser, M. J., C. W. Moss, and R. E. Weaver. 1980c. Cellular fatty acid composition of Campylobacter fetus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 448–451.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Blaser, M. J., G. P. Perez-Perez, P. E Smith, C. Patton, E. C. Tenover, A. J. Lastovica, and W. -L. L. Wang. 1986a. Extraintestinal Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections: host factors and strain characteristics. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 552–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blaser, M. J., and L. B. Reller. 1981. Campylobacter enteritis. N. Eng. J. Med. 305: 1444–1452.Google Scholar
  13. Blaser, M. J., P. E. Smith, W. -L. L. Wang, and J. C. Hoff. 1986b. Inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni by chlorine and monocholarime. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 307–311.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolton, E. J., and D. Coates. 1983. Development of a blood-free Campylobacter medium: screening tests on basal media and supplements, and the ability of selected supplements to facilitate aerotolerance. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 54: 115–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolton, E J., A. V. Holt, and D. N. Hutchinson. 1984. Campylobacter biotyping scheme of epidemiological value. J. Clin. Pathol. 37: 677–681.Google Scholar
  16. Bolton, E. J., and L. Robertson. 1982. A selective medium for isolating Campylobacter jejuni/coli. J. Clin. Pathol. 35: 462–467.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Boosinger, T. R., H. L. Thacker, and C. M. Armstrong. 1985. Campylobacter sputorum subsp. mucosalis and Campylobacter hyointestinalis infections in the intestine of gnotobiotic pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46: 2152–2156.Google Scholar
  18. Bopp, C. A., K. A. Birkness, I. K. Wachsmuth, and T. J. Barrett. 1985. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid analysis, and serotyping of epidemic-associated Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 4–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradbury, W. C., M. A. Marko, J. N. Hennessy, and J. L. Penner. 1983. Occurence of plasmid DNA in serologically defined strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Infect. Immun. 40: 460–463.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Bradbury, W. C., A. D. Pearson, M. A. Marko, R. V. Congi, and J. L. Penner. 1984. Investigation of a Campylobacter jejuni outbreak by serotyping and chromosomal restriction endonuclease analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 342–346.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Bronsdon, M. A., and E D. Schoenknecht. 1988. Campylobacter pylori isolated from the stomach of the monkey, Macaca nemestrina. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1725–1728.Google Scholar
  22. Brooks, B. W., M. M. Garcia, A. D. E. Fraser, H. Lior, R. B. Stewart, and A. M. Lammerding. 1986. Isolation and characterization of cephalothin-susceptible Campylobacter coli from slaughter cattle. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 591–595.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Bryner, J. H., P. C. Estes, J. W. Foley, and P. A. O’Berry. 1971. Infectivity of three Vibrio fetus biotypes for gallbladder and intestines of cattle, sheep, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. Am. J. Vet. Res. 32: 465–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bryner, J. H., B. D. Firehammer, and I. V. Wesley. 1988. Vaccination of pregnant guinea pigs with Campylobacter fetus: effects of antigen dose, ampylobacter strain, and adjuvant type. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bryner, J. H., J. W. Foley, and K. Thompson. 1979. Cornparative efficacy of ten commercial Campylobacter fetus vaccines in the pregnant guinea pig: challenge with Campylobacter fetus serotype A. A.. J. Vet. Res. 3: 433–453.Google Scholar
  26. Bryner, J. H., P. A. O’Berry, and A. H. Frank. 1964. Vibrio infection of the digestive organs of cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 25: 1048–1050.Google Scholar
  27. Buck, G. E., W. K. Gourley, W. K. Lee, K. Subramanyam, J. M. Latimer, and A..R. DiNuzzio. 1986. Relation of Campylobacter pyloridis to gastritis and peptic ulcer. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 664–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Buck, G. E. and J. S. Smith. 1987. Media supplementation for growth of Campylobacter pyloridis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 597–599.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Butzler, J. P., and M. B. Skirrow. 1979. Campylobacter enteritis. Clin. Gastroenterol. 8: 737–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Campbell, S. G., and C. A. Cookingham. 1978. The enigma of winter dysentery. Cornell Vet. 68: 423–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chan, R., B. Hannan, and R. Munro. 1985. Use of a selective enrichment broth for isolation of Campylobacter species from human feces. Pathology 17: 640–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chang, W., and J. E. Ogg. 1971. Transduction and mutation to glycine tolerance in Vibrio fetus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 32: 649–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chevrier, D., D. Larzul, F. Megraud, and J. L. Guedson. 1989. Identification and classification of Campylobacter strains by using nonradioactive DNA probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 321–326.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Cimolai, N., M. J. Gill, A. Jones, B. Flores, W. E. Stamm, W. Laurie, B. Madden, and M. S. Shahrabadi. 1987. “Campylobacter cinaedi” bacteremia: case report and laboratory findings. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 942–943.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, B. L. 1971. Review of bovine vibriosis. Austral. Vet. J. 47: 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clark, B. L. and J. H. Dufty. 1978. Isolation of Campylo- bacter fetus from bulls. Aust. Vet. J. 54: 262–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Collins, D. M., and D. E. Ross. 1984. Restriction endonuclease analysis of campylobacter strains with particular reference to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. J. Med. Microbiol. 18: 117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dekeyser, P., M. Gossuins-Detrain, J. P. Butzler, and J. Sternon. 1972. Acute enteritis due to related Vibrio: first positive stool cultures. J. Infect. Dis. 125: 390–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dent, J. C., and C. A. M. McNulty. 1988. Evaluation of a new selective medium for Campylobacter pylori. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 555–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Devlin, H. R., and L. McIntyre. 1983. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 999–1000.Google Scholar
  41. Doyle, L. P. 1944. A vibrio associated with swine dysentary. Am. J. Vet. Res. 5: 3–5.Google Scholar
  42. Doyle, M. P., and D. J. Roman. 1981. Growth and survival of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni as a function of temperature and pH. J. Food Protect. 44: 596–601.Google Scholar
  43. Doyle, M. P., and D. J. Roman. 1982. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from inoculated foods by selective enrichment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1343–1353.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Doyle, M. P., and J. L. Schoeni. 1986. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from retail mushrooms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 449–450.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Echeverria, P., J. Seriwatana, O. Sethabutr, and D. N. Taylor. 1985. DNA hybridization in the diagnosis of bacterial diarrhea. Clinics Lab. Med. 5: 447–462.Google Scholar
  46. Edmonds, P., C. M. Patton, P. M. Griffen, T J. Barrett, G. K. Morris, A. G. Steigerwalt, and D. J. Brenner. 1985. Biochemical and genetic characteristics of atypical Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus strains isolated from humans in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 936–940.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Edmonds, P., C. M. Patton, P. M. Griffen, T. J. Barrett, G. P. Schmid, C. N. Baker, M. A. Lambert, and D. J. Brenner. 1987. Campylobacter hyointestinalis associated with human gastrointestinal disease in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 685–691.Google Scholar
  48. El-Sherbeeny, M. R., C. Bopp, J G. Wells, and G. K. Morris. 1985. Comparison of gauze swabs and membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from surface water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 611–614.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Ezaki, T., N. Takeuchi, S. L. Liu, and A. Kai. 1988. Small scale DNA preparation for rapid genetic identification of Campylobacter species without radioisotope. Microbiol. Immunol. 32: 141–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fennell, C. L., A. M. Rompalo, P. A. Totten, K. L. Brunch, B. M. Flores, and W. E. Stamm. 1986. Isolation of “Campylobacter hyointestinalis” from a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 146–148.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Fennell, C. L., P. A. Totten, T. C. Quinn, D. L. Patton, K. K. Holmes, and W. E. Stamm. 1984. Characterization of Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 58–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ferguson, D. A., Jr., and D. W. Lambe, Jr. 1984. Differentiation of Campylobacter species by protein banding patterns in polyacrylamide slab gels. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 453–460.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Firehammer, B. D. 1965. The isolation of vibrios from ovine feces. Cornell Vet. 55: 482–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Firehammer, B. D., and L. L. Meyers. 1981. Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni: its possible significance in enteric disease of calves and lambs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42: 918–922.Google Scholar
  55. Fleming, M. P. 1983. Association of Campylobacter jejuni with enteritis in dogs and cats. Vet. Rec. 113: 372–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Florent, A. 1959. Les deux Vibrioses genitales de la bete bovine: la vibriose venerienne, due a V foetus venerialis et la Vibriose d’origine intestinale due a V. foetus intestinalis. Proc. 16th Int. V.t. Congr. 2: 489.Google Scholar
  57. Flores, B. M., C. L. Fennell, K. K. Holmes, and W. E. Stamm. 1985. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter-like organisms to twenty antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28: 188–191.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Fox, J. G. 1985. The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in random-source cats used in biomedical research. J. Infec. Dis. 151: 743.Google Scholar
  59. Fox, J. G., T. Chilvers, C. S. Goodwin, N. S. Taylor, P. Edmonds, L. I. Sly, and D. J. Brenner. 1989. Campylobacter mustelae, a new species resulting from the elevation of Campylobacter pylori subsp. mustelae to species status. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 301–303.Google Scholar
  60. Fox, J. G., N. S. Taylor, P. Edmonds, and D. J. Brenner. 1988. Campylobacter pylori subsp. mustelae subsp. nov. isolated from the gastric mucosa of ferrets (Mus-tela putorius furo), and an emended description of Campylobacter pylori. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 367–370.Google Scholar
  61. Garcia, M. M., M. D. Eaglesome, and C. Rigby. 1983. Campylobacters important in veterinary medicine. Vet. Bull. 53: 793–818.Google Scholar
  62. Gebhart, C. J., P. Edmonds, G. E. Ward, H. J. Kurtz, and D. J. Brenner. 1985. “Campylobacter hyointestinalis” sp. nov.: a new species of Campylobacter found in the intestines of pigs and other animals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 715–720.Google Scholar
  63. Gebhart, C. J., C. L. Fennell, M. P. Murtaugh, and W. E. Stamm. 1989. Campylobacter cinaedi is normal intestinal flora in hamsters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1692–1694.Google Scholar
  64. Gebhart, C. J., G. E. Ward, K. Chang, and H. J. Kurtz. 1983. Campylobacter hyointestinalis (new species) isolated from swine with lesions of proliferative ileitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 361–367.Google Scholar
  65. George, H. A., P. S. Hoffman, R. M. Smibert, and N. R. Krieg. 1978. Improved media for growth and aerotolerance of Campylobacter fetus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 36–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Goodman, T. G., and P. S. Hoffman. 1983. Hydrogenase activity in catalase-positive strains of Campylobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 825–829.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Goodwin, C. S., P. Blake, and E. Blincow. 1986. The minimum inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentrations of antibiotics and anti-ulcer agents against Campylobacter pyloridis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 17: 309–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Goossens, H., M. DeBoeck, and J. P. Butzler. 1983. A new selective medium for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from human feces. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Goossens, H., M. De Boeck, H. Coignau, L. Vlaes, C. Van Den Borre, and J. P. Butzler. 1986. Modified selective medium for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from feces: Comparison with Preston medium, a blood-free medium, and a filtration system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 840–843.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Goossens, H., L. Vlaes, I. Galand, C. Van Den Borre, and J. P. Butzler. 1989. Semisolid blood-free selective-motility medium for the isolation of campylobacters from stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1077–1080.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Graham, D. Y., P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr., D. G. Evans, L. A. Alpert, A R. Opekun, and T. W. Boutton. 1987. Campylobacter pylori detected noninvasively by the ‘3C-urea breath test. Lancet 1: 1174–1177.Google Scholar
  72. Grajewski, B. A., J. W. Kusek, and H. M. Gelfand. 1985. Development of a bacteriophage typing system for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 13–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Goodwin, C. S., J. A. Armstrong, T. Chilvers, M. Peters, M. D. Collins, L. Sly, W. McConnell, and W. E. S. Harper. 1989. Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov. as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov. and Halicobacter mustelae comb. nov., respectively. Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 39: 397405.Google Scholar
  74. Guerrant, R. L., R. G. Lahita, W. C. Winn Jr. and R. B. Roberts. 1978. Campylobacteriosis in man: pathogenic mechanisms and review of 91 bloodstream infections. Am. J. Med. 65: 584–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hanna, J., S. D. Neil, J. J. O’Brien, and W. A. Ellis. 1983. Comparison of aerotolerant and reference strains of Campylobacter species by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 33: 143–146.Google Scholar
  76. Harris, N. V., D. Thompson, D. C. Martin, and C. M. Nolan. 1986. A survey of Campylobacter and other bacterial contaminants of pre-market chicken and retail poultry and meats, King County, Washington. Amer. Jour. Pub. Hlth. 76: 401–406.Google Scholar
  77. Harvey, S. M. 1980. Hippurate hydrolysis by Campylobacter fetus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 435–437.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Harvey, S. M., and J. R. Greenwood. 1983a. Probable Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 1278–1279.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Harvey, S. M., and J. R. Greenwood. 1983b. Relationships among catalase-positive Campylobacters determined by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization. Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 33: 275–284.Google Scholar
  80. Hazell, S. L., T. J. Borody, A. Gal, and A. Lee. 1987. Campylobacter pyloridis gastritis I: detection of urease as a marker of bacterial colonization and gastritis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 82: 292–295.Google Scholar
  81. Hébert, G. A., P. Edmonds, and D. J. Brenner. 1984. DNA relatedness among strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli with divergent serogroup and hippurate reactions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 138–140.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Hébert, G. A., D. G. Hollis, R. E. Weaver, M. G Lambert, M. J. Blaser, and C. W. Moss. 1982. 30 years of Campylobacters: biochemical characteristics and a biotyping proposal for Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 1065–1073.Google Scholar
  83. Hébert, G.A., D.G. Hollis, R. E. Weaver, A. G. Steigerwalt, R. M. McKinney, and D. J. Brenner. 1983. Serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter fetus defined by direct immunofluorescence. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 529–538.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Heisick, J. 1985. Comparison of enrichment broths for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 1313–1314.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Higgins, R., and R. Degre. 1979. Isolation of spirillum-like organisms from pig and bovine fetuses. Vet. Rec. 104: 262–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hodge, D. S., J. F. Prescott, and R. E. Shewen. 1986. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy for rapid screening of Campylobacter enteritis. J. Clin. Microbiool. 24: 863–865.Google Scholar
  87. Hoffer, M. A. 1981. Bovine campylobacteriosis: a review. Can. Vet. J. 22: 327–330.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Hwang, M., and G. M. Ederer. 1975. Rapid hippurate hydrolysis method for presumptive identification of group B streptococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1: 114–115.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Jones, F. S., and R. B. Little. 1931. The etiology of infectious diarrhea (winter scours) in cattle. J. Exp. Med. 53: 835851.Google Scholar
  90. Jones, R. L., M. A. Davis, and H. Vonbyern. 1985. Cultural procedures for the isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis from preputial secretions and the occurence of antimicrobial resistance, p. 225–238. In: 28th Ann. Proc. of Am. Assn. Vet. Lab. Diagn.Google Scholar
  91. Kakoyiannis, C. K., R. J. Winter, and R. B. Marshall. 1984. Identification of Campylobacter coli isolates from animals and humans by bacterial restriction endonuclease DNA analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48: 545–549.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Karmali, M. A., A. K. Allen, and R C. Fleming. 1981. Differentiation of catalase-positive campylobacters with special reference to morphology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 64–71.Google Scholar
  93. Karmali, M. A., and P. C. Fleming. 1979. Application of the Fortner principal to isolation of Campylobacter from stools. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10: 245–247.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Karmali, M. A., A. E. Simor, M. Roscoe, P. C. Fleming, S. S. Smith, and J. Lane. 1986. Evaluation of a blood-free, charcoal based, selective medium for the isolation of Campylobacter organisms from feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 456–459.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Karmali, M. A., and M. B. Skirrow. 1984. Taxonomy of the genus Campylobacter, p. 1–20, In: J. P. Butzler (ed.), Campylobacter infection in man and animals. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  96. Kasper, G., and N. Dickgiesser. 1985. Isolation from gastric epithelium of campylobacter-like bacteria that are distinct from “Campylobacter pyloridis.” Lancet 1: 38–39.Google Scholar
  97. King, E. O. 1957. Human infections with Vibrio fetus and a closely related vibrio. J. Infect. Dis. 101: 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. King, E. O. 1962. The laboratory recognition of Vibrio fetus and a closely, related vibrio isolated from cases of human vibriosis. Annals New York Acad. Sci. 98: 700–711.Google Scholar
  99. Korolik, V., R. J. Coloe, and V. Krishnapillai. 1988. A specific probe for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 521–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kotarski, S. E, T. L. Merriwether, G. T. Tkalcevic, and P. Gemski. 1986. Genetic studies of kanamycin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30: 225–230.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Labigne-Roussel, A., J. Harel, and L. Tompkins. 1987. Gene transfer for Escherichia coli to Campylobacter species: development of shuttle vectors for genetic analysis of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Bacteriol. 169: 5320–5323.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Lambert, T., G. Gerbaud, R. Trieu-Cuot, and R. Courvalin. 1985. Structural relationship between the genes encoding 3’-aminoglycoside phosphotransferases in Campylobacter and in Gram-positive cocci. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. 136B: 135–150.Google Scholar
  103. Lander, K. P. 1983. New technique for collection of vaginal mucus from cattle. Vet. Rec. 112: 570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lander, K. R, and K. P. W. Gill. 1985. Campylobacters, p. 123–142. In: D. H. Collins, and J. M. Grange (ed.), Isolation and identification of microorganisms of medical and veterinary importance. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  105. Lastovica, A. J., E. Le Roux, and J. L. Penner. 1989. Campylobacter upsaliensis isolated from blood cultures of pediatric patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 657–659.Google Scholar
  106. Lau, P. R, B. DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B. Dunn, K. Miotto, M. T. MacDonell, D. M. Rollins, C. J. Pillidge, R. B. Hespell, R. R. Colwell, M. L. Sogin, and G. E. Fox. 1987. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter. System. Appl. Microbiol. 9: 231–238.Google Scholar
  107. Lawson, G. H. K., J. L. Leaver, G. W. Pettigrew, and A. C. Rowland. 1981. Some features of Campylobacter sputorum ssp. mucosalis subsp. nov., nom. re. and their taxonomic significance. International J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 385–391.Google Scholar
  108. Lawson, G. H. K., and A. C. Roland. 1974. Intestinal adenomatosis in the pig: a bacteriological study. Res. Vet. Sci. 17: 331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Leaper, S., and R. J. Owen. 1981. Identification of catalaseproducing Campylobacter species based on biochemical characteristics and on cellular fatty acid composition. Curr. Microbiol. 6: 31–35.Google Scholar
  110. Levy, A. J. 1946. A gastroenteritis outbreak probably due to a bovine strain of vibrio. Yale J. Biol. Med. 18: 243–247.Google Scholar
  111. Lior, H. 1984. New, extended biotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and “Campylobacter laridis. ” J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 636–640.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Lior, H., D. L. Woodward, J. A. Edgar, L. J. Laroche, and R Gill. 1982. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni by slide agglutination based on heat-labile antigenic factors. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 761–768.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Loesche, W. J., R. J. Gibbons, S. S. Socransky. 1965. Biochemical characteristics of Vibrio sputorum and relationship to Vibrio bubulus and Vibrio fetus. J. Bacteriol. 89: 1109–1116.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Logan, E. E, S. D. Neill, and D. R Mackie. 1982. Mastitis in dairy cows associated with an aerotolerant campylobacter. Vet. Rec. 110: 229–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lovett, J., D. W. Francis, and J. M. Hunt. 1983. Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from raw milk. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46: 459–462.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Luechtefeld, N. W., L. B. Reller, M. J. Blaser, and W. -L. L. Wang. 1982. Comparison of atmospheres of incubation for primary isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from animal specimens: 5% oxygen versus candle jar. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 53–57.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Luechtefeld, N. W., and W. -L. L. Wang, 1982. Hippurate hydrolysis by and triphenyltetrazolium chloride tolerance of Campylobacter fetus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 137–140.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Manser, R A., and R. W. Dalziel. 1985. A survey of Cam- pylobacter in animals. J. Hyg. Camb. 95: 15–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Marshall, B. J.. 1990. Campylobacter pylori: its link to gastric and peptic ulcer disease. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: S87 - S93.Google Scholar
  120. Marshall, B. J., and C. S. Goodwin. 1987. Revised nomenclature of Campylobacter pyloridis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 68.Google Scholar
  121. Marshall, B. J., H. Royce, D. I. Annear, C. S. Goodwin, J. W. Pearlman, J. R. Warren, and J. A. Armstrong. 1984. Original isolation of Campylobacter pyloridis from human gastric mucosa. Microbios. Lett. 25: 8388.Google Scholar
  122. Marshall, B. J., and J. R. Warren. 1984. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet 1: 1311–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Martin, W. T., C. M. Patton, G. K. Morris, M. E. Potter, and N. D. Puhr. 1983. Selective enrichment broth medium for isolation of Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 853–855.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. McClung, C. R., and D. G. Patriquin. 1980. Isolation of a nitrogen-fixing Campylobacter species from the roots of Spartina alternifora Loisal. Can. J. Microbiol. 26: 881–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. McClung, C. R., D. G. Patriquin, and R. E. Davis. 1983. Campylobacter nitrofigilis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with roots of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 605–612.Google Scholar
  126. McFadyean, J., and S. Stockman. 1913. Report of the Departmental committee appointed by the board of Agriculture and Fisheries to enquire into epizootic abortion Part I II. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London.Google Scholar
  127. Megraud, E, and F. Bonnet. 1986. Unusual campylobacters in human feces. J. Infect. 12: 275–276:Google Scholar
  128. Megraud, E, D. Chevrier, N. Desplaces, A. Sedallian, and J. L. Guesdon. 1988. Urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (Campylobacter laridis variant) isolated from an appendix and from human feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1050–1051.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Miller, J. E, W. J. Dower, and L. S. Tompkins. 1988. High-voltage electroporation of bacteria: genetic transformation of Campylobacter jejuni with plasmid DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85: 856–860.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Morton, W. R., M. Bronsdon, P. Mickelsen, G. Knitter, S. Rosenkranz, L. Kuller, and D. Sajuthi. 1983. Identification of Campylobacter jejuni in Macaca fascicularis imported from Indonesia. Lab. Animal. Sci. 33: 187–188.Google Scholar
  131. Moss, C. W., A. Kai, M. A. Lambert, and C. Patton. 1984. Isoprenoid quinone content and cellular fatty acid composition of Campylobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 772–776.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Moureau, P., I. Derclaye, D. Gregoire, M. Janssen, and G. R. Cornelis. 1989. Campylobacter species identification based on polymorphism of DNA encoding rRNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1514–1517.Google Scholar
  133. Nachamkin, I., C. Stowell, D. Skalina, A. M. Jones, R. M. Roop II, and R. M. Smibert. 1984. Campylobacter laridis causing bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. Ann. Intern. Med. 101: 55–57.Google Scholar
  134. Neill, S. D., J. N. Campbell, J. J. O’Brien, S. T. C. Weatherup, and W. A. Ellis. 1985. Taxonomic position of Campylobacter cryaerophila sp. nov. Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 35: 342–356.Google Scholar
  135. Neill, S. D., W. A. Ellis, and J. J. O’Brien. 1978. The biochemical characteristics of campylobacter-like organisms from cattle and pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 25: 368–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Neill, S. D., J. J. O’Brien, and W. A. Ellis. 1980. The isolation of aerotolerant campylobacter. Vet. Rec. 106: 152–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ng, L. -K., M. E. Stiles, and D. E. Taylor. 1985. Inhibition of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by antibiotics used in selective growth media. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 510–514.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Ng, L.-K. M. E. Stiles, and D. E. Taylor. 1987. Classification of Campylobacter strains using DNA probes. Mol. Cell. Probes. 1: 233–243.Google Scholar
  139. Ng, V. L., W. K. Hadley, C. L. Fennell, B. M. Flores, and W. E. Stamm. 1987. Successive bacteremias with “Campylobacter cinaedi” and “Campylobacter fennelliae” in a bisexual male. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2008–2009.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Owen, R. J. 1983. Nucleic acids in the classification of cam- pylobacters. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2: 367–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Owen, R. J., A. Beck, and P. Borman. 1985. Restriction endonuclease digest patterns of chromosomal DNA from nitrate negative Campylobacter jejuni-like organisms. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1: 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Owen, R. J. and S. Leaper. 1981. Base composition, size, and nucleotide sequence similarities of genome deoxyribonucleic acids from species of the genus Campylobacter. FEMS Microbiol. Letters 12: 395–400.Google Scholar
  143. Paisley, J. W., S. Mirrett, B. A. Lauer, M. Roe, and L. B. Relier. 1982. Dark-field microscopy of human feces for presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni enteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15: 61–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Paster, B. J., and E E. Dewhirst. 1988. Phylogeny of Campylobacters, Wolinellas, Bacteroides gracilis, and Bacteroides ureolyticus by 16S ribosomal nucleic acid sequencing. Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 38: 56–62.Google Scholar
  145. Paster, B. J., and R. J. Gibbons. 1986. Chemotactic response to formate by Campylobacter concisus and its potential role in gingival colonization. Infect. Immun. 52: 378–383.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Pasternak, J., R. Bolivar, R. L. Hopfer, V. Fainstein, K. Mills, A. Rios, G. P. Bodey, C. L. Fennell, P. A. Totten, and W. E. Stamm. 1984. Bacteremia caused by Campylobacter-like organisms in two homosexual males. Ann. Intern. Med. 101: 339–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Patton, C. M., N. Shaffer, P. Edmonds, T. J. Barrett, M. A. Lambert, C. Baker, D. M. Perlman, and D. J. Brenner. 1989. Human disease associated with “Campylobacter upsaliensis” (catalase-negative or weakly positive Campylobacter species) in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 66–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Penner, J. L. 1988. The genus Campylobacter: a decade of progress. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 1: 157–172.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Penner, J. L. and J. N. Hennessy. 1980. Passive hemagglutination technique for serotyping Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni on the basis of soluble heat-stable antigens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 732–737.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Perez-Perez, G. I., B. M. Dworkin, J. E. Chodos, and M. J. Blaser. 1988. Campylobacter pylori antibodies in humans. Ann. Intern. Med. 109: 11–17.Google Scholar
  151. Picken, R. N., Z. Wang, and H. L. Yang. 1987. Molecular cloning of a species-specific DNA probe for Campylobacter jejuni. Mol. Cell. Probes 1: 245–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Prescott, J. E, and C. W. Bruin-Mosch. 1981. Carriage of Campylobacter jejuni in healthy and diarrheic animals. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42: 164–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Prescott, J. E, and D. L. Munroe. 1982. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis in man and domestic animals. J.Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 181: 1524–1530.Google Scholar
  154. Price, A. B., J. M. Dolby, P. R. Dunscombe, and J. Stirling. 1984. Detection of campylobacter by immunofluorescence in stools and rectal biopsies of patients with diarrhea. J. Clin. Pathol. 37: 1007–1013.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Quinn, T. C, S. E. Goodell, C. Fennell, S. P. Wong, M. D. Schuffler, K. K. Holmes, and W. E. Stamm. 1984. Infections with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter-like organisms in homosexual men. Ann. Intern. Med. 101: 187–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Rauws, E. A. J., and G. N. J. Tytgat. 1989. Campylobacter pylori. W. C. den Ouden B. V., Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  157. Rollins, D. M., and R. R. Colwell. 1986. Viable but nonculturable stage of Campylobacter jejuni and its role in survival in the natural aquatic environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 531–538.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Romaniuk, P. J., and T. J. Trust. 1987. Identification of Campylobacter species by Southern hybridization of genomic DNA using an oligonucleotide probe for 16S rRNA genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 43: 331–335.Google Scholar
  159. Romaniuk, P. J., and T. J. Trust. 1989. Rapid identification of Campylobacter species using oligonucleotide probes to 16S ribosomal RNA. Mol. Cell. Probes 3: 133–142.Google Scholar
  160. Romaniuk, P. J., B. Zoltowska, T. J. Trust, D. J. Lane, G. J. Olsen, N. R. Pace, and D. A. Stahl. 1987. Campylobacter pylori, the spiral bacterium associated with human gastritis, is not a true Campylobacter sp. J. Bacteriol. 169: 2137–2141.Google Scholar
  161. Roop, R. M. II, R. M. Smibert, J. L. Johnson, and N. R. Krieg. 1984. Differential characteristics of catalase-positive campylobacters correlated with DNA homology groups. Can. J. Microbiol. 30: 938–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Roop, R. M. II, R. M. Smibert, J. L. Johnson, and N. R. Krieg. 1985a. DNA homology studies of the catalasenegative campylobacters and “Campylobacter faecalis, an amended description of Campylobacter sputorum, and proposal of the neotype strain of Campylobacter sputorum. Can. J. Microbiol. 31: 823–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Roop, R. M. II, R. M. Smibert, J. L. Johnson, and N. R. Krieg. 1985b. Campylobacter mucosalis (Lawson, Learer, Pettigrew and Roland 1981) comb. nov.: emended description. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 189–192.Google Scholar
  164. Rowland, A. C., G. H. K. Lawson, and A. Maxwell. 1973. Intestinal adenomatosis in the pig: occurence of a bacterium in affected cells. Nature (London) 243: 417.Google Scholar
  165. Sagara, H., A. Mochizuki, N. Okamura, and R. Nakaya. 1987. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli with special reference to plasmid profiles of Japanese clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 713–719.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Samuelson, J. D., and J. A. Winter. 1966. Bovine vibriosis: the nature of the carrier state in the bull. J. Infect. Dis. 116: 581–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Sandstedt, K., J. Ursing, and M. Walder. 1983. Thermo-tolerant Campylobacter with no or weak catalase activity isolated from dogs. Curr. Microbiol. 8: 209–213.Google Scholar
  168. Sebald, M., and M. Véron. 1963. Teneur en bases de l’ADN et classification des vibrions. Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 105: 897–910.Google Scholar
  169. Simmons, N. A. 1977. Isolation of campylobacters [Letter]. Br. Med. J. 2: 707.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Simor, A. E., and L. Wilcox. 1987. Enteritis associated with Campylobacter laridis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 10–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Skerman, V. D. B., V. McGowan, and P. H. A. Sneath. 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30: 225–420.Google Scholar
  172. Skirrow, M. B. 1977. Campylobacter enteritis: a “new” disease. Br. Med. J. 2: 9–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. Skirrow, M. B., and J. Benjamin. 1980a. Differentiation of enteropathogenic Campylobacter. J. Clin. Pathol. 33: 1122.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Skirrow, M. B., and J. Benjamin. 1980b. `1001’ Campylobacters: cultural characteristics of intestinal campylobacters from man and animals. J. Hyg. (Camb.) 85: 427–442.Google Scholar
  175. Smibert, R. M. 1974. Genus II. Campylobacter Sebald and Véron 1963, 907, p. 207–212. In: R. E. Buchanan and N. E. Gibbons (ed.), Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th ed. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  176. Simbert, R. M. 1978. The genus Campylobacter. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 32: 673–709.Google Scholar
  177. Smibert, R. M. 1984. Genus Campylobacter Sebald and Veron 1963, 907, p. 111–118. In: N. R. Krieg and J G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  178. Smith, T. 1918. Spirilla associated with disease of the fetal membranes in cattle (infectious abortion). J. Exp. Med. 28: 701–705.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Smith, T., and M. S. Taylor. 1919. Some morphological and biological charactristics of the spirilla (Vibrio fetus, n. sp.) associated with disease of the fetal membranes in cattle. J. Exp. Med. 30: 299–311.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Sougakoff, W., B. Papadopoulou, P. Nordmann, and P. Courvalin. 1987. Nucleotide sequence and distribution of gene tetO encoding tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 44: 153–159.Google Scholar
  181. Steele, T. W. and McDermott. 1984. The use of membrane filters applied directly to the surface of agar plates for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from feces. Pathology 16: 263–265.Google Scholar
  182. Steele, T. W., and R. J. Owen. 1988. Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei subsp. nov., a subspecies of nitrate-negative Campylobacters isolated from human clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 316–318.Google Scholar
  183. Steele, T. W., N. Sangster, and J. A. Lanser. 1985. DNA relateness and biochemical features of Campylobacter spp. isolated in central and south Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 71–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Tanner, A. C. R. 1986. Characterization of Wolinella spp., Campylobacter concisus, Bacteroides gracilis, and Eikenella corrodens by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 562–565.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Tanner, A. C. T., S. Badger, C. -H. Lai, M. A. Listgarten, R. A. Visconti, and S. S. Socransky. 1981. Wolinella gen. nov. Wolinella succinogenes (Vibrio succinogenes Wolin et al.) comb. nov., and description of Bacteroides gracilis sp. nov., Wolinella recta sp. nov., Campylobacter concisus sp. nov., and Eikenella corrodens from humans with periodontal disease. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 31: 432–445.Google Scholar
  186. Tauxe, R. V., C. M. Patton, R. Edmonds, T. J. Barrett, D. J. Brenner, and P. A. Blake. 1985. Illness associated with Campylobacter laridis, a newly recognized Campylobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 222–225.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Taylor, D. E., and P. Courvalin. 1988. Mechanisms on antibiotic resistance resistance in Campylobacter species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1107–1112.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  188. Taylor, D. E., S. A. DeGrandis, M. A. Karmali, and R C. Fleming. 1981. Transmissible plasmids from Campylobacter jejuni. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 19: 831–835.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. Taylor, D. E., K. Hiratsuka, and L. Mueller. 1989. Isolation and characterization of catalase-negative, and catalaseweak strains of Campylobacter species, including “Campylobacter upsaliensis, from humans with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2042–2045.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Taylor, D. E., L. -K. Ng, and H. Lior. 1985. Susceptibility of Campylobacter species to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and other DNA gyrase inhibitors. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28: 708–710.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Tee, W., R. Baird, M. Dyall-Smith, and B. Dwyer. 1988. Campylobacter cryaerophila isolated from a human. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 2469–2473.Google Scholar
  192. Tenover, F. C., M. A. Bronsdon, K. P. Gordon, and J. J. Plorde. 1983. Isolation of plasmids encoding tetracycline resistance from Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from simians. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 23: 320–322.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Tenover, E. C., and R. M. Elvrum. 1988. Detection of two different kanamycin resistance genes in naturally occurring isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1170–1173.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Tenover, E C., T. Gilbert, and R. O’Hara. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of a novel kanamycin resistance gene, aphA7, from Campylobacter jejuni and comparison to other kanamycin phosphotransferase genes. Plasmid 22: 52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Tenover, E C., J. S. Knapp, C. Patton, and J. J. Plorde. 1985a. Use of auxotyping for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections. Infect. Immun. 48: 384–388.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Tenover, F. C., and C. M. Patton. 1987. Naturally occurring auxotrophs of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1659–1661.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Tenover, E C., S. Williams, K. P. Gordon, N. Harris, C. Nolan, and J. J. Plorde. 1984. Utility of plasmid fingerprinting for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni infections. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Tenover, E C., S. Williams, K. P. Gordon, C. Nolan, and J. J. Plorde. 1985b. Survey of plasmids and resistance factors in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 37–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Thompson, L. M., R M. Smibert, J. L. Johnson, and N. R. Krieg. 1988. Phylogenetic study of the genus Campylobacter. Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 38: 190–200.Google Scholar
  200. Tompkins, L. S., and M. Krajden. 1986. Approaches to the detection of enteric pathogens, including Campylobacter, using nucleic acid hybridization. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 4: 71S - 78S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Totten, P. A., C. L. Fennell, E C. Tenover, J. M. Wezenberg, P. L. Penne, W. E. Stamm, and K. K. Holmes. 1985. Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric disease in homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 131–139.Google Scholar
  202. Totten, P. A., C. M. Patton, E C. Tenover, T. J. Barrett, W. E. Stamm, A. G. Steigerwalt, J. Y. Lin, K. K. Holmes, and D. J. Brenner. 1987. Prevalence and characterization of hippurate negative Campylobacter jejuni in King County, Washington. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1747–1752.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. Trieu-Cuot, P., G. Gerbaud, T. Lambert, and P. Courvalin. 1985. In vivo transfer of genetic information between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. EMBO J. 4: 3583–3587.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Ursing, J., M. Walder, and K. Sandstedt. 1983. Base composition and sequence homology of deoxyribonucleic acid of thermotolerant Campylobacter from human and animal sources. Curr. Microbiol. 8: 307–310.Google Scholar
  205. Vandamme, P., E. Falsen, B. Pot, B. Hoste, K. Kersters, and J. De Ley. 1989. Identification of EF group 22 campylobacters from gastroenteritis cases as Campylobacter concisus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1775–1781.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Vanhoof, R., R. Dierickx, H. Coignau, J. M. H. Hubrechts, L. Kaufman, and J. P. Butzler. 1984. Disk sensitivity testing for Campylobacter jejuni. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3: 160–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Vasquez, L. A., L. Ball, B. W. Bennett, G. P. Rupp, R. Ellis, J. D. Olson, and M. H. Huffman. 1983. Bovine genital campylobacteriosis (vibriosis): vaccination of experimentally infected bulls. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 1553–1557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Véron, M. and R. Chatelain. 1973. Taxonomic study of the genus Campylobacter Sebald and Veron and designation of the neotype strain for the type species Campylobacter fetus (Smith and Taylor) Sebald and Veron. Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol. 23: 122–134.Google Scholar
  209. Véron, M., A. Lenvoise-Furet and P. Beaune. 1981. Anaerobic respiration of fumarate as a differential test between Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni. Curr. Microbiol. 6: 349–354.Google Scholar
  210. Vinzent, R., J. Dumas, and N. Picard. 1947. Septicemie grave au cours de la grossesse due a un Vinrion Avortement consecutif. Bull. Acad. Med. Paris 131: 90–93.Google Scholar
  211. Walmsley, S. L., and M. A. Karmali. 1989. Direct isolation of atypical thermophilic Campylobacter species from human feces on selective agar medium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 668–670.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. Wang, W. -L. L., N. W. Luechtefeld, L. B. Relier, and M. J. Blaser. 1980. Enriched brucella medium for storage and transport of cultures of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 12: 479–480.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. Wang, W. -L. L., L. B. Relier, and M. J. Blaser, 1984. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26: 351–353.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. Wang, W. -L. L., L. B. Reller, B. Smallwood, N. W. Luechtefeld, and M. J. Blaser. 1983. Evaluation of transport media for Campylobacter jejuni in human fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 803–807.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Waterman, S. C. 1982. The heat-sensitivity of Campylo- bacter jejuni in milk. J. Hyg. Camb. 88: 529–533.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred C. Tenover
  • Cynthia L. Fennell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations