The Prokaryotes pp 3276-3280 | Cite as

The Moraxella and Branhamella Subgenera of the Genus Moraxella

  • Gary V. Doern


The Moraxella genus is comprised of two subgenera, Moraxella and Branhamella (Bøvre, 1984). Within the Moraxella subgenus are found six clearly delineated species: M. (M.) lacunata, the type species of this subgenus, M. (M.) nonliquefaciens, M. (M.) atlantae, M. (M.) phenylpyruvica, and M (M.) osloensis. In addition, there is one species of uncertain taxonomic status, M. urethralis (species incertae sedis). The Branhamella subgenus consists of four species: M. (B.) catarrhalis, the type species of this subgenus, M. (B.) caviae, M. (B.) ovis, and M. (B.) cuniculi.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Acute Otitis Medium Sodium Lactate Neisseria Species Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bartos, L. C., and T. F. Murphy. 1988. Comparison of the outer membrane proteins of 50 strains of Branhamella catarrhalis. J. Infec. Dis. 158: 761–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bevre, K. 1979. Proposal to divide the genus Moraxella Lwoff 1939 emend. Henriksen and Bevre 1968 into two subgenera, subgenus Moraxella (Lwoff 1939) Bevre 1979 and subgenus Branhamella (Catlin 1970) Bevre 1979. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 29: 403–406.Google Scholar
  3. Bevre, K. 1984. Genus II. Moraxella Lwoff 1939, 173 emend. Henriksen and Bevre 1968, 391, p. 296–303. In: N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.Google Scholar
  4. Catlin, B. W. 1970. Transfer of the organism named Neisseria catarrhalis to Branhamella Gen. Nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 20: 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Corkill, J. E., and T. Makin. 1982. A selective medium for nonpathogenic aerobic Gram-negative cocci from the respiratory tract with particular reference to Branhamella catarrhalis. Med. Lab. Sci. 39: 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dealler, S. E, M. Abbott, M. J. Croughan, and P. M. Hawkey. 1989. Identification of Branhamella catarrhalis in 2.5 min with an indoxyl butyrate strip test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1390–1391.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Doern, G. V. 1986. Branhamella catarrhalis-an emerging human pathogen. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 4: 191–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Doern, G. V., and S. A. Morse 1980. Branhamella (Neisseria) catarrhalis: criteria for laboratory identification. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 193–195.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Doern, G. V., and T. A. Tubert 1987. Detection of /3-lactamase activity among clinical isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis with six different beta-lactamase assays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1380–1383.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Doern, G. V., and T. A. Tubert 1988. In vitro activities of 39 antimicrobial agents for Branhamella catarrhalis and comparison of results with different quantitative susceptibility test methods. Antimicrob. Agents Chem-other. 32: 259–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farmer, T., and C. Reading 1986. Inhibition of the betalactamases of Branhamella catarrhalis by clavulanic acid and other inhibitors. Drugs 31 (Suppl. 3): 70–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gil-Turnes C., and G. A. Ribeiro 1985. Moraxella bovis hemagglutininins: effect of carbohydrates, heating and erythrocytes. Can. J. Compar. Med. 49: 112–114.Google Scholar
  13. Janda, W. M., and P. Ruther. 1989. B. CAT. CONFIRM, a rapid test for confirmation of Branhamella catarrhalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1130–1131.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, K. G., I. J. McDonald, and M. B. Perry. 1976. Studies on the cellular and free lipopolysaccharides from Branhamella catarrhalis. Can. J. Microbiol. 22: 460–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jorgensen, J. H., G. V. Doern, and C. Thornsberry. 1990. Antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Branhamella catarrhalis: results of a multicenter national collaborative study. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Juni, E., G. A. Heym, and M. Avery. 1986. Defined medium for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 546–551.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Kagonyera, G. M., L. George, and M. Miller. 1989. Effects of Moraxella bovis and culture filtrates on 51 Cr-labeled bovine neutrophils. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 50: 18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Labia, R., M. Barthelemy, C. B. LeBonguennec, and A. B. Hoi-Dang Van. 1986. Classification of beta-lactamase from Branhamella catarrhalis in relationship to penicillinases produced by other bacterial species. Drugs 31 (Suppl. 3): 40–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marrs, C. E, W. W. Ruehl, G. K. Schoolnick, and S. Falkow. 1988. Pilingene phase variation of Moraxella bovis is caused by an inversion of the pilin genes. J. Bacteriol. 170: 3032–39.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Moore, L. J., and J. M. Rutter. 1987. Antigenic analysis of fimbrial proteins from Moraxella bovis. J. Clin Microbiol. 25: 2063–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Moore, L. J., and J. M. Rutter. 1989. Attachment of Moraxella bovis to calf corneal cells and inhibition by antiserum. Austral. Vet. J. 66: 39–42.Google Scholar
  22. Murphy, T. E 1989. The surface of Branhamella catarrhalis: a systematic approach to the surface antigens of an emerging pathogen. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8: S75–S77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nash, D. R., R. J. Wallace, V. A. Steingrub, and E A. Shurin. 1986. Isoelectric focusing of beta-lactamases from sputum and middle ear isolates of Branhamella catarrhalis in the United States. Drugs 31 (Suppl. 3): 47–53.Google Scholar
  24. Ostle A. G., and R. E Rosenbusch. 1985. Immunogenecity of Moraxella bovis hemolysin. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 46: 1011–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Patterson, J. E., T. F. Patterson, P. Farrell, W. J. Hierholtzer, and M. J. Zervos. 1989. Evaluation of restriction endonuclease analysis as an epidemiologic typing system for Branhamella catarrhalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 944–946.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Pugh, G. W., K. E. Kopecky, and T. J. McDonald. 1985. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: subconjunctival administration of a Moraxella bovis pilus preparation enhances immunogenicity. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 46: 811–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Pugh, G. W., and T. J. Mac Donald. 1986. Identification of bovine carriers of Moraxella bovis by comparative cultural examinations of ocular and nasal secretions. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 47: 2343–2345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Riley, G. Y. 1987. A note on hydrolysis of tributyrin by Branhamella and Neisseria. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 62: 539–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ruehl, W. W., C. F. Mans, R. Fernandez, S. Falkow, and G. K. Schoolnik. 1988. Purification, characterization and pathogenecity of Moraxella bovis pili. J. Exp. Med. 168: 983–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soto-Hernandez, J. L., D. Nunley, S. Holtsclaw-Berk, and S. L. Berk. 1988. Selective medium with DNAse test agar and a modified toluidine blue O technique for primary isolation of Branhamella catarrhalis in sputum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 405–408.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Soto-Hernandez, J. L., S. Holtsclaw-Berk, L. M. Harvill, and S. J. Berk. 1989. Phenotypic characteristics of Branhamella catarrhalis strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 903–908.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Stobberingh, E. E., H. J. van Eck, A. W. Houben, and C. P. A. van Boven. 1986. Analysis of the relationship between ampicillin resistance and beta-lactamase production of Branhamella catarrhalis. Drugs 31 (Suppl. 3): 23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vaneechoutte, M., G. Verschraegen, G. Claeys, and A-M. Van Den Abeele. 1988a. Selective medium for Branhamella catarrhalis with acetazolamide as a specific inhibitor of Neisseria species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 2544–2548.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Vaneechoutte, M., G. Verschraegen, G. Claeys, and P. Flamen. 1988b. Rapid identification of Branhamella catarrhalis with 4-methylumbelliferyl butyrate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1227–1228.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary V. Doern

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations