Forced Convection

  • Donald A. Nield
  • Adrian Bejan


The fundamental question in heat transfer engineering is to determine the relationship between the heat transfer rate and the driving temperature difference. In nature, many saturated porous media interact thermally with one another, and with solid surfaces that confine them or are embedded in them. In this chapter we analyze the basic heat transfer question by looking only at forced convection situations, in which the fluid flow is caused (forced) by an external agent unrelated to the heating effect. First we discuss the results that have been developed based on the Darcy flow model, and later we address the more recent work on the non-Darcy effects.


Porous Medium Nusselt Number Heat Transfer Rate Force Convection Thermal Boundary Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald A. Nield
    • 1
  • Adrian Bejan
    • 2
  1. 1.Engineering SciencesUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Mechanical EngineeringDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations