The properties of a material are determined by its structure and chemical composition. Since chemical behavior depends ultimately upon the internal structural arrangement of the atoms, all material properties may be attributed to structure. Structure occurs on many levels of scale. These scales may be somewhat arbitrarily defined as the atomic or molecular (0.1–1 nm), nanoscale or ultrastructural (1 nm–1 µm), microstructural (1 µm–1 mm), and macrostructural (>1 mm). In pure elements, alloys, ceramics, and in polymers, the major structural features are on the atomic/molecular scale. Polycrystalline materials such as cast metals consist of grains, which may be quite large; however, the boundaries between the grains are atomic-scale features.
KeywordsCoordination Number Natural Rubber Side Group Interstitial Atom Radius Ratio
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