Overview of Voice Communications and Speech Processing

  • A. Nejat Ince
Part of the The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 155)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the use of voice for civil and military communications and outlines possible operational requirements including environmental factors and the effects of propagational factors and electronic warfare. Structures of the existing NATO communications network (taken as an example of military networks) and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) are reviewed to show how they meet the requirements postulated.

It is concluded that speech coding at low-bit rates is a growing need for transmitting speech messages with a high level of security and reliability over low data-rate channels and for memory-efficient systems for voice storage, voice response, and voice mail etc. Furthermore it is pointed out that the low-bit rate voice coding can ease the transition to shared channels for voice and data and can readily adopt voice messages for packet switching.

The speech processing techiques and systems are then outlined as an introduction to the lectures of this series in terms of:
  • The character of the speech signal, its generation and perception

  • speech coding which is mainly concerned with man-to-man voice communication

  • speech synthesis which deals with machine-to-man communication

  • speech recognation which is related to man-to-machine communication

  • quality assessment of speech system and standards

Keywords

Speech Recognition Speech Signal Vocal Tract Asynchronous Transfer Mode Speaker Recognition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Cherry C., “On Human Communication”, Science Editions, Inc., New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Ince A.N., et al., “The System Master Plan and Architectural Design Studies for TAFICS”, PTT-TAPO Technical Reports, Ankara, 1989.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Ochsman R.B. et al., “The Effects of 10 Communications Modes on the Behavior of Teams During Cooperative Problem Solving”, International Journal Man-Machine Studies, Vol 6, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Smith M., “A Model of Human Communication”, IEEE Com. Magazine, Vol 26, No 2, Feb. 1988.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Drukarch C.Z. et al., “X.25: the Universal Packet Network”, Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. Comput. Commun.”, Oct. 1980.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Weir D.F., Holnblad J.B., Rothberg A.C., “An X.75 Based Network Architecture”, Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. Comput. Commun.” Oct. 1980.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Ross M. and Mowafi D., “Performance Analysis of Hybrid Switching Concepts for Integrated Voice/Data Communications”, IEEE Trans. Com num., COM-30 No.5, May 1982.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Haselton E.F., “A Per Frame Switching Concept Leading to Burst Switching Network Architecture”, Proc. ICC 1983.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Gitman I. and Frank H., “Economic Analysis of Integrated Voice and Data Networks; A Case Study”, Proc. IEEE Vol.65, Nov.1978.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Heggestad H.M. and Weistein C.J., “Voice and Data Communications Experiments on a Wideband Satellite/Terrestrial Interwork System”, Proc. Int. Conf. Commun., Boston, MA, June 1983.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Falk G. et al., “A Multiprocessor Channel Schedular for the Wideband Packet Satellite Network” Proc. Int.Conf. Commun., Boston, MA, June 1983.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    “The potential Impact of Developments in Electronic Technology on the Future Conduct of Air Warfare”, AGARD Advisory Report No.232, Vol 3, 1986.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    “CCITT SG XVIII, Rep. R.17, Working Party 8”, Geneva Meeting, March 1986.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    “CCITT SG XVIII, Rep. R.45, Working Party 8”, Hamburg Meeting July 1987.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    “Encyclopedia Britanica”, Cambridge University Press, London, 11th Ed. 1911.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Paget R., “Human Speech”, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co.Ltd. London 1930.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Dudley H., “The Carrier Nature of Speech”, Bell System TechJ., 19 Oct.1940.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Dudley H., et al., “A Synthetic Speaker”, J.Franklin Inst., 227, 1939.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Halsey R.J. and Swafield J., “Analysis-Synthesis Telephony with Special Reference to the Vocoder”, J. Inst. Elec. Engrs (London), 95, Part III, 1948.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Mangold H., “Analysis, Synthesis and Transmission of Speech Signals”, AGARD Lecture Series No. 129 “Speech Processing”, May 1983.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    “CCITT Red Book, Vol III”, Geneva, ITU Press, 1948.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Crochiere R.E., et al., “Real-Time Speech Coding”, IEEE Trans. On Commun., Vol COM-30, April 1982.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Buze A., et al., “Speech Coding Based upon Vector Quantisation”., IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech and Signal Process., ASSP-28, No.5, Oct. 1980.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Roucos S., et al., “Vector Quantization for Very-Low-Rate Coding of Speech”, Conf.Rec, 1982 IEEE Global Corns Conf., FL, Nov.29–Dec.2, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Jayant N.S., “Coding Speech at Low Bit Rates”, IEEE Spectrum, Aug. 1986.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    “Principles of the International Phonetic Association”, Dept. of Phonetics, University Collage, London, 1949.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Flanagan J.L., “Speech Analysis Synthesis and Perception”, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Kaplan G. and Lerner E.J., “Realism in Synthetic Speech”, IEEE Spectrum, April 1985.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    “USA Standard Method for Measurement of Monosyllabic Word Intelligibility”, American National Standards Institute Inc., New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Fairbanks G., “Voice and Articulation Drill Book”, Harper and Bros., New York, 1940.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Ochiai I., “Phoneme and Voice Identification Using Japanese Vowels”, Language and Speech, Vol.2, 1959.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Beranek L. L., “Acoustics”, McGraw Hill, 1954.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    French N.R., Steinberg J.C., “Factors Governing the Intelligibility of Speech Sounds”, J. Acoust. Society of America, Vol.19, 1947.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    “Speech Processing Technology”, ATT Technical Journal, Sept. Oct. 1986 Vol 65, Issue 5.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Ince A.N. and Schemel R. “Factors Affecting Use and Design of Spread-Spectrum Modems for the HF Band”, Proc. IEE, Vol. 133, Part F, No. 2, April 1986.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Ince A.N. et al., “Considerations for NATO Satellite Communications in the Post 2000 Era”, AGARDograph 330, 1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Nejat Ince
    • 1
  1. 1.Istanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations