Biophysical Analysis of Eye Lens Transparency

  • Annette Tardieu
  • Françoise Vérétout
Part of the Perspectives in Vision Research book series (PIVR)


The molecular basis of eye lens transparency has been analyzed recently using osmotic pressure and solution X-ray scattering experiments, and the fundamental contribution of protein-protein interactions to the process was described (Vérétout et al., 1989). The aim of this chapter is to present the role of protein-protein interactions in a more pictorial way.


Osmotic Pressure Protein Molecular Weight Protein Distribution Lens Transparency Crystallin Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Benedek, G. B., 1971, Theory of transparency of the eye, Appl. Opt. 10:459–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettelheim, F. A., and Siew, E. L., 1983, Effect of change in concentration upon lens turbidity as predicted by the random fluctuation theory., Biophys. J. 41:29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clark, J. I., Delaye, M., Hammer, P., and Menge, L., 1982, Preparation and characterization of native lens cell cytoplasm, Curr. Eye Res. 1:695–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Delaye, M., and Gromiec, A., 1983, Mutual diffusion of crystallin proteins at finite concentrations: A light scattering study., Bi-opolymers 22:1203–1221.Google Scholar
  5. Delaye, M., and Tardieu, A., 1983, Short range order of crystallin protein accounts for eye lens transparency., Nature 302:415–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Delaye, M., Danford-Kaplan, M. E., Clark, J. I., Krop, B., Gulik-Krzywicki, T., and Tardieu, A., 1987, Effect of calcium on the calf lens cytoplasm, Exp. Eye Res. 44:601–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eisenberg, H., 1976, Biological Macromolecules and Polyelectrolytes in Solution, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Hansen, J. P., and Hayter, J. B., 1982, A rescaled MSA structure factor for dilute charged colloïdal dispersions, Mol. Phys. 46:651–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hayter, J. B., and Penfold, J., 1981, An analytic structure factor for macroion solutions, Mol. Phys. 42:109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Magid, A. D., Mcintosh, T. J., and Simon, S. A., 1989, Osmotic pressure of bovine lens crystallins, Biophys. J. 55:21a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Parsegian, V. A., Rand, R. P., Fuller, N. L., and Rau, D. C., 1986, Osmotic stress for the direct measurement of intermolecular forces, Methods Enzymol. 127:400–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Prouty, M.S., Schechter, A. N., and Parsegian, V. A.,1985, Chemical potential measurements of deoxyhemoglobin S polymerization: Determination of the phase diagram of an assembling protein, J. Mol. Biol. 184:517–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Reiff, T. R., 1986, A colloid osmotic model of macromolecular aggregation to explain tissue water loss in aging, Exp. Gerontol. 21:267–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Siezen, R. J., Fisch, M. R., Slingsby, C., and Benedek, G. B., 1985, Opacification of γ-crystallin solutions from calf lens in relation to cold cataract formation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:1701–1705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Slingsby, C., 1985, Structural variation in lens crystallins, Trends Biochem. Sci. 10:281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tardieu, A., and Delaye, M., 1988, Eye lens proteins and transparency: From light transmission theory to solution x-ray structural analysis, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 17:47–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tardieu, A., Laporte, D., Licinio, P., Krop, B., and Delaye, M., 1986, Calf lens γ-crystallin quaternary structure: A three-layer tetrahedral model, J. Mol. Biol. 192:711–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Thomson, J. A., Schurtenberger, P., Thurston, G. M., and Benedek, G. B., 1987, Binary liquid phase separation and critical phenomena in a protein/water solution, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:7079–7083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Trokel, S. L., 1962, The physical basis for transparency of the crystalline lens, Invest. Ophthalmol. 1:493–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Vérétout, F., and Tardieu, A., 1989, The protein concentration gradient within eye lens might originate from constant osmotic pressure coupled to differential interactive properties of crystallins, Eur. Biophys. J. 17:61–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vérétout, F., Delaye, M., and Tardieu, A., 1989, The molecular basis of eye lens transparency: Osmotic pressure and X-ray analysis of α-crystallin solutions, J. Mol. Biol. 205:713–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette Tardieu
    • 1
  • Françoise Vérétout
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre de Génétique MoléculaireCNRSGif sur Yvette CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations