Advertisement

Ocular Dominance, Accommodation, and the Interocular Suppression of Blur in Monovision

  • Clifton Schor
  • Paul Erickson
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives in Vision Research book series (PIVR)

Abstract

Traditionally., large amounts of anisometropia are considered an obstacle for normal binocular vision, and clinicians strive to equate the visual acuity in the two eyes with optimal refractive correction. Anisometropia could depress binocular measures of visual acuity if the blurred image of the ametropic eye reduced the contrast of the eye with less ametropia. Anisometropic blur also produces a marked elevation of the stereoscopic depth threshold, which is considerably greater than the threshold elevation produced by equal blurring of the two ocular images (Lit, 1968; Peters, 1969; Ong and Burley., 1972; Levy and Glick, 1974; Goodwin and Romano, 1985; Lovasik and Szymkiw, 1985; Schor and Heckmann, 1989). Finally., anisometropia presents an ambiguous stimulus to accommodation whenever the test target is proximal to the unequal far points of the two eyes.

Keywords

Pupil Size Test Spot Contrast Threshold Ocular Dominance Binocular Summation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abadi, R., 1967, Induction masking—a study of some inhibitory interactions during dichoptic viewing, Vision Res. 16:269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atchison, D. A., Smith, G., and Efron, N., 1979, The effect of pupil size on visual acuity in uncorrected and corrected myopia, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 56:315–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, R., Brown, B., and Garner, L., 1983, Time course and variability of dark focus, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24:1528–1531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berardi, N., Galk, L. L., Maffei, L., and Siliprandi, R., 1986, Binocular suppression in cortical neurones, Exp. Brain Res. 63:581–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borish, I. M., 1970, Clinical Refraction, 3rd ed., Professional Press, Chicago, pp. 173–174.Google Scholar
  6. Brewster, D., 1856, The Stereoscope, Its HistorY., Theory and Constructing, J. Murray., London.Google Scholar
  7. Campbell, F., 1957, The depth of field of the human eye, Optic Acta 4:157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, F., and Gregory, M., 1960, Effect of size of pupil on visual acuitY., Nature 187:1121–1123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crawford, B. A., 1936, The dependence of pupil size upon external light stimulus under static and variable conditions, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol] 121:376–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Erickson, P., 1988, Potential range of clear vision in monovision, J. Am. Opt. Assoc. 59:203–205.Google Scholar
  11. Fahle, M., 1982, Binocular rivalry: Suppression depends on orientation and spatial frequencY., Vision Res. 22:787–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fry, G. A., 1969, Geometrical Optics, Chilton, New York, p. 13.Google Scholar
  13. Goodwin, R.T., and Romano, P. E., 1985, Stereoacuity degradation by experimental and real monocular and binocular amblyopia, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26:917–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Heath, D. A., Hines, C., and Schivartz, F., 1986, Suppression behavior analyzed as a function of monovision addition power, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63:198–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Helmholtz, H., 1962, Treatise on Physiological Optics (J. P. C. Southall, ed.), Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Julesz, B., and Miller, J., 1975, Independent spatial-frequency-tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalr Y., Perception 4:125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Larsen, W. L., and Lachance, A., 1983, Stereoscopic acuity with induced refractive errors, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 60:509–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Levy, N. S., and Glick, E. B., 1974, Stereoscopic perception and Snellen visual acuit Y., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 78:722–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lit, A., 1968, Presentation of experimental data, J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 39:1098–1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Loshin, D. S., Loshin, M. S., and Comer, G., 1982, Binocular summation with monovision contact lens correction for presbyopia, Int. Contact Lens Clin. 9:161–165.Google Scholar
  21. Lovasik, J. V., and Szymkiw, M., 1985, Effects of aniScikonia, anisometropia, accommodation, retinal illuminance and pupil size on stereopsis, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26:741–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McGill, E., and Erickson, P., 1988, Stereopsis in presbyopes wearing monovision and simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65:619–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McLendon, J. H., Burcham, J. L., and Pheiffer, C. H., 1968, Presbyopic patterns and single vision contact lenses II, South J. Optom. 10:7–12,31,36.Google Scholar
  24. Ogle, K. N., and Groch, J., 1956, Stereopsis and unequal luminosities in the two eyes, Am. Arch. Ophthalmol. 54:878–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ogle, K. N., and Schwartz, J. T., 1959, Depth of focus of the human eye, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49:273–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ong, J., and Burley, W. S., 1972, Effect of induced anisometropia an depth perception, Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 49:333–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peters, H. B., 1969, The influence of anisometropia an stereosen-sitivitY., Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 46:120–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Randle, R. J., 1970, Volitional control of visual accommodation, in: Adaptation and Acclimatization in Aerospace Medicine (H. J. Grunhofer, ed.), Garmisch-Partenkirchen.Google Scholar
  29. Schor, C. M., and Erickson, P., 1988, Patterns of binocular suppression and accommodation in monovision, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 65:853–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schor, C. M., and Heckmann, T., 1989, Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: Effects on stereopsis and fusion, Vision Res. 29:837–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schor, C. M., and Howarth, P., 1986, Suprathreshold stereo-depth matches as a function of contrast and spatial frequenc Y., Perception 15:249–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schor, C. M., Kotulak, J. C., and Tsuetaki, T., 1986, Adaption of tonic accommodation reduces accommodative lag and is masked in darkness, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 27:820–827.Google Scholar
  33. Schor, C.M., Landsman, L., and Erickson, P., 1987, Ocular dominance and the interocular suppression of blur in monovision, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 64:723–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schor, C. M., Wood, I. C., and Ogawa, J., 1984, Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis, Vision Res. 24:573–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tucker, J., and Charman, W. N., 1975, The depth of focus of the human eye for Snellen letters, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 52:3–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Woodhouse, J. M., 1975, The effect of pupil size on grating detection at various contrast levels, Vision Res. 15:645–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clifton Schor
    • 1
  • Paul Erickson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of OptometryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations