The Menopause and Beyond

  • Fran E. Kaiser
  • John E. Morley


Menopause is the permanent cessation of menses. In the United States, the mean age at menopause is approximately 51 years, with the majority of women experiencing menopause at 45 to 55 years of age. The age at which menopause occurs has not altered substantially since the first available records, which placed it at 50 years in medieval Europe. The major change has been that, with increasing longevity, women now live approximately a third of their total life span after menopause. Menstruation beyond age 55 years increases the possibility of endometrial hyperplasia and/or malignancy and requires that an endometrial biopsy be performed. The age at menopause is not altered by use of oral contraceptives, age at or number of pregnancies, age at menarche, race, body habitus, or socioeconomic conditions. The major environmental factor altering the age at onset of menopause is cigarette smoking, which causes, menopause to occur 1 to 2 years earlier than might be predicted. The hormonal basis of menopause is decreased ovarian steroidogenesis, which occurs in the face of adequate gonadotropin stimulation.


Postmenopausal Woman Endometrial Cancer Granulosa Cell Estrogen Replacement Therapy Vasomotor Symptom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fran E. Kaiser
  • John E. Morley

There are no affiliations available

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